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final-sol

# final-sol - Ling 20 Fall 2007 Prof M Kracht Final Y N Y UID...

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Ling 20. Fall 2007. Prof. M. Kracht Final. Y  N  : Y  UID: Y  TA: No material is admitted except paper and pencil. Remember to write legibly. There is a maximum of 100 Points. The exam is counting 20 % towards the degree. Total number of points: 100 Your score: Question 1. (4 Points) Let the following inference be given: Julia is sitting behind Joe. Joe is sitting in front of Bill. Julia is sitting beside Bill. Solution. This inference is: Valid, x Invalid. If valid, say briefly why. If invalid, sketch a situation where the premisses are true and the conclusion is false. Let them sit (back to front:) Julia, Bill, Joe. Remarks. Most people got that one right. Question 2. (3 Points) Suppose that V is distributive. Are the following inferences valid? (a) Jake Vs. Jill Vs. Jake and Jill V. (b) Jake and Jill V. Jake Vs. (c) Jake and Jill V. Jill Vs. 1

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Ling 20. Fall 2007. Prof. M. Kracht Final. Solution. (a) x Valid Invalid. (b) x Valid Invalid. (c) x Valid Invalid. Remarks. By definition. Most people got that one right. Question 3. (3 Points) Of the following sentences say which one implies the other: (3.a) I have only one paper that is white. (3.b) I have only one paper, which is white. Solution. (b) implies (a). Remarks. This much is enough. For if (b) is true, then you have only one paper, and it is white. And then (a) is also true. But if you have 2 sheets of paper, one red one white, (a) is true while (b) is false. So (a) does not imply (b). 3 points down if you got it wrong. But most people didn’t. Question 4. (6 Points) (a) Describe in terms of c-command the two readings of the following sentence. John is tall or Pete is small and Claire is smart. Solution. / or / c-commands / Pete is small and Claire is smart / ; / or / c-commands only / Pete is small / . Remarks. Common mistakes: to not talk about c-command (only 1 point o ff if you gave me bracketings instead); to say that / Claire is smart / c-commands something (1 point o ff , it does not); (However, there are many more c-command relations to distinguish the two readings and were counted if correct.) 2
Ling 20. Fall 2007. Prof. M. Kracht Final. to say something like: is interpreted first, or understood first, or the like. No points o ff , but it is not counted as correct either. (b) Assign truth values to the elementary sentences to make exactly one of the above readings true (and say which one it makes true). Solution. Suppose that / John is tall / is true; that / Pete is small / is true; and that / Claire is smart / is false. Then is true (1 (1 0) = 1 0 = 1), while is false ((1 1) 0 = 1 0 = 0). Remarks. There are alternatives. Actually, / Pete is small. / could also be false. 1 Point o ff if you did not say what the valuation is and instead went on to make deductions as to what could possibly be the case. One thing you have to learn is answer the question!

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final-sol - Ling 20 Fall 2007 Prof M Kracht Final Y N Y UID...

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