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ling-intro - Introduction to Linguistics Marcus Kracht...

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Introduction to Linguistics Marcus Kracht Department of Linguistics, UCLA 3125 Campbell Hall 450 Hilgard Avenue Los Angeles, CA 90095–1543 [email protected]
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2 Contents Contents Lecture 1: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Lecture 2: Phonetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Lecture 3: Phonology I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Lecture 4: Phonology II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Lecture 5: Phonology III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Lecture 6: Phonology IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Lecture 7: Morphology I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Lecture 8: Syntax I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Lecture 9: Syntax II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Lecture 10: Syntax III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Lecture 11: Syntax IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Lecture 12: Syntax V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Lecture 13: Morphology II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Lecture 14: Semantics I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Lecture 15: Semantics II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Lecture 16: Semantics III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Lecture 17: Semantics IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Lecture 18: Semantics V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Lecture 19: Language Families and History of Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
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Lecture 1: Introduction Languages are sets of signs . Signs combine an exponent (a sequence of letters or sounds) with a meaning. Grammars are ways to generate signs from more basic signs. Signs combine a form and a meaning, and they are identical with neither their exponent nor with their mean- ing. Before we start. I have tried to be as explicit as I could in preparing these notes. You will find that some of the technicalities are demanding at first sight. Do not panic! You are not expected to master these technicalities right away. The technical character is basically due to my desire to be as explicit and detailed as possible. For some of you this might actually be helpful. If you are not among them you may want to read some other book on the side (which I encourage you to do anyway). However, linguistics is getting increasingly formal and mathematical, and you are well advised to get used to this style of doing science. So, if you do not understand right away what I am saying, you will simply have to go over it again and again. And keep asking questions! New words and technical terms that are used for the first time are typed in bold-face. If you are supposed to know what they mean, a definition will be given right away. The definition is valid throughout the entire course, but be aware of the fact that other people might define things di ff erently. This applies when you read other books, for example. You should beware of possible discrepancies in terminology. If you are not given a definition elsewhere, be cautious. If you are given a di ff erent definition it does not mean that the other books get it wrong. The symbol in the margin signals some material that is di ffi cult, and optional. Such passages are put in for those who want to get a perfect understanding of the material; but they are not requried knowledge. (End of note) Language is a means to communicate, it is a semiotic system. By that we simply mean that it is a set of signs . Its A sign is a pair consisting—in the words of Ferdinand de Saussure—of a signifier and a signified . We prefer to call the signifier the exponent and the signified the meaning . For example, in English the string / dog / is a signifier, and its signified is, say, doghood, or the set of all dogs.
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