Final Review Essay Questions

Final Review Essay Questions - 1a. Describe the nebular...

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1a. Describe the nebular hypothesis for the formation of the solar system. — Developed in 18th century by Immanuel Kant and colleages — Known as SNDM (Solar Nebula Disk Model) — Nebula (cloud of gas and dust) begins to collapse because the gravitational forces are stronger than the outward pressure of the gas. — Cloud begins to spin from conservation of angular momentum o Conversation of energy, like why ice skater brings in arms to spin faster — Cloud spins faster as it contracts — Most of the mass falls to the center forming a protostar (protosun) — The collapsing, spinning nebula begins to accrete and flatten into a rotating pancake — Disk cools in T-stage — Creates protoplanets — Giant planets formed outside "frost line" (gases turn to ice); more massive in than inner part of accretion disk
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1b. List, the observational evidences that support this hypothesis. — the orbits of the planets lie nearly in a plane with the sun at the center — the planets all revolve in the same direction — planets mostly rotate in the same direction with rotation axes nearly perpendicular to the orbital plane. — The Hubble telescope found protoplanetary disks in the Orion Nebula and the Eagle Nebula — "Frost line" fact is proven because things that are composed of volatiles move farther away from the Sun, although they are still within the solar system. 1c. Are there observations that do not support this hypothesis? — Venus spinning retrograde motion (accretion disk as a unit spins in one direction) — Neptune's on its side (sort of like the Zipper carnival ride)
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2. Explain the presence of resonance gaps in the main asteroid belt. — Gravitational interactions with Jupiter and the Sun pull the asteroids one way or the — 2:1, 3:1, 5:3, 7:2 (ratio example: asteroid orbits twice/Jupiter once) — Kirkwood gaps, regions in the asteroid belt within which few asteroids are found. Astronomer Daniel Kirkwood first observed (1886) that few asteroids had an orbital period close to 1/2, 1/3, or 2/5 that of Jupiter. The gaps could have been formed by collisions between asteroids; however, the most widely accepted theory is that the gaps were formed by gravitational interactions with Jupiter, which over time would move any small body into another orbit.
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3. Distinguish between comets and main-belt asteroids in terms of orbit and composition. How do Oort clouds differ from Kuiper Belt comets? ASTEROIDS COMETS Orbit Asteroid belt between Jupiter and Mars; very elliptical orbit orbit same direction as planets Some orbits are over 200 years Kuiper Belt and Oort clouds but because of very elliptical orbit can pass through inner solar system orbit same or opposite planets Composition Rocks and metals Ice and dust
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The Oort cloud is an hypothetical spherical shell of debris 50,000-100,000 AU in radius from which possibly generates comets. The cloud is believed to be made up of material ejected out of the inner solar system by encounters with Uranus and Neptune, but which
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This note was uploaded on 10/19/2008 for the course GEO 21 taught by Professor Repka during the Spring '08 term at Saddleback.

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Final Review Essay Questions - 1a. Describe the nebular...

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