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Anthro Midterm Prep The “European Miracle” and The “Orient Express” European Miracle: The claim that certain innovations and great minds all came from Europe and that Europe was responsible for leading the world out of the Medieval Period. Orient Express: The belief that the only places that were interesting in history were the civilizations Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, Europe, and finally America. The idea that civilization’s progression only heads westward and everything happening in the east is negligible. (Blaut’s play on the actual Orient Express, which was a train system reaching from London to Turkey.) Ancient Civilizations (Basic Layout) Western Progression : (Neo) Babylonian Empire (conquered 700-800 BC) Persian Empire (conquered 4th Century BC) Greeks (lasted until 1st Century BC) Romans (East-Rome conquered 476). The Others: Nile Valley, Yellow River, Indus River Characteristics of Large Civilizations: Intensive Agriculture: Farming which produces a surplus Urban Centers: With relatively dense populations forms a stratified society (not everybody doing the same job) Writing System: for records, communications, laws Centralized Political System: Political mechanism in place Intensive Agriculture 10,000-12,000 years ago, the “Green Revolution” occurred, where humans started farming in various parts of the globe. These included: Middle East : Wheat and Barley (~10,000 yrs ago) China and N. Vietnam : Rice (~10,000 yrs ago) Africa : Sorghum (similar to wheat/corn) (~10,000 yrs ago) Americas (Central) : Maize (~9000 yrs ago) New Guinea : Bananas (~8,000 yrs ago) India/Thailand/Vietnam/Cambodia : Chickens (~8000 yrs ago) Middle East/Africa/India : Cows (~8000 yrs ago) Americas (South) : Potatoes (~7000 yrs ago) Contemporaries in 6th - 5th century BC
Xerxes : Persian leader made Zoroastrianism(or Cyrus), the first monotheistic religion, the national religion of the Persian Empire. Allowed freedom of religion in his empire. Leonidas : King of Greek city-state Sparta. Socrates : Greek philosopher, one of the founders of Western philosophy. Siddartha Gautama (Buddha) : India/Nepal, found of Buddhism Confucius : China, founder of Confucianism Locations of Early Cradles of Civilization Republics and Limited Monarchies in 5th Century BC Athens : Not really a real republic, but had eliminated the idea of a monarch Allowed wealthy male property owners to vote 12 Republics : India shared similar functionings to Athens Same idea that only the upper class man could vote Indus Valley Video: Ancient Indus artifacts have been found 2000 km away from the Indus Valley Ancient city of Mahenjo-Daro located in Pakistan The city, made out of baked bricks , had a population of 40000 , and contained 700 water wells and a flush toilet system People bathed in a great communal bath Merchants in the city used seals to denote ownership.

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