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Unformatted text preview: Work and Life What is WorkLife Conflict?
a type of interrole conflict in which the competing demands of work and family/other life roles are incompatible and participation in one role makes participation in the other role more difficult 2 directions: workinterferencewithfamily(life) familyinterferencewithwork 3 types: timebased strainbased behaviorbased 2 Directions of Conflict Workinterferencewithnonwork (WIF): when the demands of work interfere with effective functioning at home Nonworkinterferencewithwork (FIW): when the demands of family/nonwork activities interfere with effective functioning at work Nonwork roles include community involvement, friendships, romantic relationships, family, household management, personal health maintenance, education, and leisure 3 Types of WorkFamily Conflict Timebased: when time demands from one role interfere with effective participation in the other role Strainbased: when strain from one role interferes with effective participation in the other role Behaviorbased: when behaviors from one role interfere with effective participation in the other role Example: nurturing style at home is ineffective with coworkers Example: can't go to a study session because of work meeting Example: yell at roommate because of work stress Exercise: In small groups, come up with an example of each type (something you've experienced or seen)
TimeBased WIF TimeBased FIW StrainBased WIF StrainBased FIW BehaviorBased WIF BehaviorBased FIW Important Note: doesn't have to be family any nonwork demands will do! Why is workfamily conflict important? Individuals who have more workfamily conflict experience: higher depression increased alcohol use increased burnout decreased job satisfaction increased intention to turnover at work Workfamily enrichment One role strengthens or enriches the quality of the other Can you think of examples? Workfamily conflict and U.S. culture US is one of only 5 countries in 173 that does not guarantee some form of paid maternity leave. 66 countries offer paid paternity leave; US does not guarantee 145 countries provide paid sick days; US law guarantees only for serious illness through FLMA (Family and Medical Leave Act) which does not cover all workers 134 countries have laws on maximum work week; US does not, nor does it limit mandatory overtime Frasch, 2007, HRExecOnline Workfamily statistics on changing needs
35% of employees have significant eldercare responsibilities Bonds et al., 2002 GenY and GenX spend more time with children than Boomers, esp men. Also work more hours than their age counterparts in 1977 (45.6hrs a week on average) How do individuals deal with workfamily conflict? Boundary Theory: individuals create and alter the boundaries between roles to deal with workfamily conflict Segmentation: encouraging roles to be separate Examples: Integration: encouraging roles to blend Examples: Turn off cell phone at dinner Don't answer work emails from home Don't call family members at work Keep a separate calendar for work and home activities Bringing kids to work Socializing with family and coworkers Working from home 3 Premises of Boundary Theory keeping work and family separate makes it easier to manage workfamily borders integrating work and family facilitates transitions between these domains either strategy can improve the wellbeing of employees, depending on the individual, their personality and preferences, and the work and family environments. Flexible work arrangements Flextime Flexplace Telecommuting VIDEO ON FLEXIBLE WORK Flextime Allow varying starting and quitting times 28.1% of full time workers have flexible schedules Discuss: what are pros and cons of allowing flexible schedules? US Census Bureau 2003 Why don't flexible work arrangements always reduce WFC? Schockley & Allen, 207 temporal flexibility (flextime) has a stronger relationship with WIF than does spatial flexibility (flexplace). family responsibility significantly moderated these relationships, such that the relationship was stronger for those with greater family responsibility Telecommuting Around 15% of workers work from home at least one day a week Discussion exercise Numbers have been increasing over the past 15 years Develop a list of pros and cons of allowing workers to telecommute US Census Bureau 2003 Metaanalysis on telecommuting Telecommuting had small but mainly beneficial effects on (lower) workfamily conflict. telecommuting had no generally detrimental effects on the quality of workplace relationships. Telecommuting also had beneficial effects on job satisfaction, performance, turnover intent, and role stress. highintensity telecommuting (more than 2.5 days a week) accentuated telecommuting's beneficial effects on workfamily conflict but harmed relationships with coworkers Gajendran & Harrison 2007 Anticipated WorkFamily Conflict a belief that the competing demands of work and family roles will be incompatible in the future and that participation in one role will make participation in the other role more difficult in the future. Take the anticipated workfamily conflict survey and score yourself. Work and Life Do you believe that companies treat employees differently if they leave work early to address family concerns (e.g., pick up a child) as opposed to personal concerns (e.g., leave early to go to the gym)? Why might organizations be more supportive of family reasons? Is it the value society places on family? Or, is it because obligations that involve children are seen as necessary? Do you think organizations should treat family concerns (e.g., picking up a child from daycare) and nonfamily concerns (e.g., leaving early to further one's education) in the same manner? Conclusions Workfamily issues matter to individuals and organizations Think about workfamily issues and you: Will you make choices that will help or inhibit workfamily balance? Will your work and family life enrich or deplete you? Will you try new ways of balancing your work, family, friends, etc? ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course PSY 255 taught by Professor Dr.annmarieryan during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.
- Spring '08
- Organizational Psychology