lymes disease.pdf - Index 1 Introduction 2 Clinical aspects...

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Index 1. Introduction 2. Clinical aspects 3. Diagnosis and treatment 4. Epidemiology 5. Etiological agents 6. Taxonomy and geographic distribution 7. Natural transmission cycles 8. Infection 9. Initial infection 10. Dissemination from the site 11. Persistence in the host 12. Transmission from host to tick 13. Tick-Borrelia interactions
Introduction: Lymes disease is a tick-brone disease that effect humans and animals. The tick caries the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. The spirochete is found in animals reservoirs and is transmitted to humans. The tick-brone borrelioses can affect domestic animals to. The Lymes tick prefer the northen temperate zone. The clinical aspects of Lymes disease is in 3 stages. The diagnosis and treatment is a wide spectrum in Lymes disease because of the many strainds there is. There is a common transmission cycle but can be changed and the infections can differ. Clinical aspects: Lyme borreliosis causes three different recognizable stages (Fivaz et al. 1991). The main symptoms of early Lymes disease is neurological, cardiac, and cutaneous manifestations according to (Roe and Sonenshine2014), neurological diseases that affect the peripheral nervous system is very common in Europe where B. garinii and B. bavariensis is associated with this symptom. Cutaneous manifestations that includes more than one ECM lesions, in Europe, borrelial lymphocytoma(bluish-red skin nodules) is associated with B. garinii and B. afzelli. The first stage and earliest stage occurs on the skin, it forms a localized skin lesion. This stage occurs after most tick bites within 3-14 days post-infection is about 80% of affected people (Roe and Sonenshine2014). The skin lesion takes the form of an erythmatous area that expands at the periphery and clearing centrally according to Fivaz et al. (1991) hence the name erythema chronicum migrans (ECM). The secondary lesions is due to the hematogenous spread, the lesions can be 5 cm in diameter. ECM can occur pruritic and is sensitive. According to Fivaz et al. (1991) and Roe and Sonenshine(2014) ECM is associated with headache, low grade fever, myalgia, arthralgia and fatigue. Some b. burgdorferi sensu stricto cause ECM but rarely disseminate with means that it rarely causes Lymes disease (Roe and Sonenshine2014). The rash that appeared will regress spontaneously after about 4 weeks. Transient joint pain can occur in the second stage, it may occur weeks or months later. Of all the joints is the knee the joint is the most common to be involved. The final stage (chronic stage) has progressive arthritis and personality changes (Fivaz et al. 1991). A small number of people had varying degrees of heart block (Hansen and Madsen 1986; de Koning et al. 1989 ). B. burgdorferi produce the disease viva endo- and exotoxins but the activation of host metalloproteinases (MMP’s) is important to produce some pathological effects of the disease (Soneneshine and Roe 2014).

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