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9-7 Psych Notes - Confounding effects extraneous variables...

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Experiments -> Causal Conclusions Correlational Studies -> Causal Hypotheses Correlational Studies - Researcher does not manipulate any variable -Observation of 2 or more variables to find relationships between them -ex. Impact of spanking on aggressiveness in children Correlations: Concepts to Remember -correlations range from -1.00 to +1.00 High correlation - strong relationship between variables Low correlation - weak relationship between variables 0 correlation - no relationship between variables Correlation is not causation Reasons 1. Direction of causality - don't know which causes which 2. Third variable problem - an unobserved variable influences BOTH observed variables Correlational data requires careful thought and skepticism - blind and double-blind studies are important. Expectancy effects bad - ex. autistic kid's communication,
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Unformatted text preview: Confounding effects - extraneous variables that have not been controlled for We learn: information about the world, how to move, connection between behavior and outcome, identify critical environmental signals (danger, food) Learning about environmental stimuli-formation of unconscious associations-reflexes associated with new stimuli-when to eat? when bell rings US - meat powder UR - salivation effect CS - bell, metronome, light (previously neutral) CR - salivation Survival Mechanism - Food - becoming nauseous in presence of toxins - salivation associated with smell of food in cafeteria Danger - Fear in place where predators are found - Flight response to noises in dark alley Automatic, Physiological Responses...
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