PHL 130 Exam 1 - PHL 130 Exam 1 I. A. B. C. D. E. What are...

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PHL 130 Exam 1 I. What are logic and reasoning? A. Reasoning – what we do when we are trying to solve a problem, made a decision, or determine whether some claim is true or false B. Logic – the study of good and bad reasoning C. Claim – any declarative statement that can be true or false D. All reasoning is about whether a given claim is true. When a claim is called into question, its truth or falsity is the issue that is raised E. Argument – a set of statements in which some, the premises, supply evidence favoring the truth of another, the conclusion 1. Premise - Offers evidence in favor in some other term 2. Conclusion - Coming to a reasoning of a claim based upon premises 3. Persuasion a. the purpose or function of arguments; to attempt to sway the audience into favoring your claim b. not all language serves this purpose (e.g. reports, expressions of opinion, and explanations) 4. Distinguishing arguments from non-arguments a. Look for relationships of evidence between two or more claims – if no claim is being offered as evidence that some other is true, no argument is being offered b. NOT an argument – “space shuttle Columbia disintegrated on re-entry because its wing was damaged by debris during take-off.” This is not an argument, even with the indicator word “because”, because the statement is not trying to persuade us of anything and the event being explained is widely accepted as a fact. F. Subjectivity (1/10/2008) a. If all claims are subjective, there would be no point in arguing. Subjectivity is that there is no right answer, that either opinion in a two-sided could be correct b. The Contradiction Test – rule of thumb for determining whether a claim is subjective II. Inductive vs. Deductive arguments A. Deductive arguments
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1. e.g. transitive property of equality 2. All premises of deductive arguments are true and they are valid (when on the assumption that its premises are true, its conclusion would also have to be true. Premises of deductive arguments are always valid but we don’t know if they are true, we can only assume. ) 3. To be sound – is to have the deductive argument’s premises to be both true and valid (if the premises are true, then is the conclusion?) B. Inductive Arguments 1. Claim that their conclusion is probably true or is likely to be true. This is said that the
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course PHL 130 taught by Professor Ferkany during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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PHL 130 Exam 1 - PHL 130 Exam 1 I. A. B. C. D. E. What are...

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