Comm101FInal - Comm101FinalExam Howtoarrivetoatheory: 1)...

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Comm 101 Final Exam How to arrive to a theory: 1.) Observation 2.) Analysis 3.) Hypotheses 4.) Experiment 5.) <REPEAT> 6.) THEORY * Agenda-setting: media tells you what is important to think about. *Framing: slant on the story *Communication: Exchange of symbols to achieve a shared meaning. Social: people and interactions. Symbol: label given to a phenomenon. Meaning: what you extract from a message. Environment: situation or context in which communication occurs. Palo Alto Team: group of scholars who believe a person “ cannot not communicate.” Noise: distortion in channel not intended by the source. 1.) Semantic: linguistic influences (Slang or jargon used by the sender.) 2.) Physical (or external): Bodily influences. 3.) Psychological noise: Cognitive influences (A communicator’s prejudices or bias.) 4.) Physiological: Biological influences (Speaker is ill, fatigued, hungry.) Ethics: perceived right or wrongness of an action or behavior. *Organizational Comm: communication with large, extended environments. *Public Comm: 1 person to a large group. *Comm. Apprehension: fear of speaking before an audience. *Mass media: channels for mass msgs. *Co-culture: cultural groups that are part of the larger, national culture *Goal of Theories: *Explanation *Understanding *Prediction *Social Change
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Classifying Theories 1.) Grand theory: attempt to explain a specified aspect of a phenomenon such as communication. (New Orleans: cycles of poverty, corruption of politics, modernity, post-modernity) Grand theory level If we live in a "modern" world –Then the problem to address is one of efficiency, proper maintenance of levees, provision for maintaining media access If we live in a "post-modern" world –Then the problem is to recognize the reality of fragmented society, the power imbalances that maintain and encourage fragmentation, the changes in social power needed (and therefore likelihood of social disruption) 2.) Midrange theory: attempt to explain a specified aspect of a phenomenon. (New Orleans: media effects, social cues, information processing.) 3.) Narrow theory: attempt to explain a limited aspect of a phenomenon. (New Orleans: assessment of the hurricane tracks.) Nominal vs. Real Concepts *Nominal: not directly observable (democracy, love.) *Real: Observable (personal rituals, distance.) *Paradigms: intellectual traditions that ground specific theories. Revolve around 3 areas: 1.) Ontology: questions about the nature of reality. 2.) Epistemology: questions about how we know things. 3.) Axiology: questions about what is worth knowing. *Metatheory: theory about how to develop a theory. Different types of rules: 1.) Habitual: set by an authority and are nonnegotiable. 2.) Parametric:
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Comm101FInal - Comm101FinalExam Howtoarrivetoatheory: 1)...

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