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Peer-to-Peer Networking - RESEARCH PROJECT Network...

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RESEARCH PROJECT Network Management NODE LOOKUP IN PEER-TO- PEER NETWORKS Dept. of Computer Science SEEU, Tetovo
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Table of contents: Overview of Peer-to-Peer System …………………….. 3 File-Sharing in Peer-to-Peer System …………………. 11 The Need for More Powerful Computers …………….. 21 Problems ……………………………………………… 32 Wireless P2P Systems ………………………………... 40 Infrastructure …………………………………………. 49 References ……………………………………………. 57
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Overview of Peer-to-Peer System 1.1Introduction Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing is the sharing of resources between computers. Such resources include processing power, knowledge, disk storage and information from distributed databases (Kamath, 2001). In the last several years, about half a billion dollars have been invested in companies developing P2P systems. This kind of interest is due to the success of several high-profile and well-known P2P applications such as the Napster and Oxford anti-cancer projects (Loo, 2003). The concept of sharing resources is not completely new. Indeed, P2P systems are a natural evolution in system architecture. It is worthwhile to have a brief look at this evolution. 1.2 Batch Modes Mainframe computers were important tools for large enterprises. In the old days, therewas only one computer in one organization as the machines were prohibitively expensive. They required special rooms with air-conditioning. The operation of these computers (Fig. 1.1) is described next. End users used to write down input data on special forms. These forms were passed to the data entry section periodically ( e.g. , once a day or once a month depending on the nature of the process). Data entry operators typed the data with special machines, which converted the data into punch card, magnetic tape and/or magnetic disk. Such input mediums were passed to computer room. A computer operator then fed the data into computer. The computer processed the data and printed the reports. Such reports were sent back to the users together with their input forms. Obviously, this ‘batch processing’ mode of operation suffers from several problems: 1. Input data forms are collected periodically as a batch. It is not uncommon that users need to wait for a few days to get their computer reports. Such kinds of…. 1. Overview of Peer-to-Peer System
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delays are acceptable for systems such as payroll as they are done periodically.
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However, it is not satisfactory for systems that need immediate answers, such as an inventory control system. 2. End users collect the data and write them down on input forms. Data entry operators do the typing. As the data entry operators do not have the knowledge of the applications, it is easier to make typing mistakes. It is more difficult for them to detect problems. A ‘verifying’ process is commonly used to overcome this problem. The idea is simple but the cost is heavy. The input data are typed by one operator. Then another operator types it again. The system compares the first
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