Psych Exam 3 - Psych Exam 3 I. A. (10/18/07) Intelligence...

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Psych Exam 3 I. (10/18/07) Intelligence – The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. A. Aspects of Intelligence 1. Verbal ability 2. Logical ability 3. Mathematical ability 4. Adaptability – adapting to new situations B. Related concepts 1. Aptitude – the ability to learn an area or skill 2. Aptitude test a. A test designed to predict a person’s future performance b. Aptitude is the capacity to learn 3. Achievement – how much have you learned on a topic already? 4. School performance – GPA? 5. Potential – someone’s estimate of your future achievement level 6. Skill – the level at which you demonstrate your knowledge and abilities C. Theories of Intelligence 1. One or many? 2. General or specific intelligence? a. General Intelligence (g factor) i. Factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities ii. Measured by every task on an intelligence test b. Specific intelligence i. Unique intelligence specific to a particular area ii. Uncorrelated (unrelated) to other specific intelligences 3. If more than one type of intelligence, how many then exist?
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D. Fluid and Crystallized intelligence 1. Fluid intelligence – ability to learn new information and new ways of thinking 2. Crystallized intelligence – amount of knowledge and information retained in the brain E. Social Intelligence – The know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully F. Charles Darwin G. Francis Galton H. Origins of Intelligence Testing (Alfred Binet) 1. Binet’s Test a. School skills b. Concurrent validity c. Age keyed – children got smarter as they got older 2. Mental Age a. A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet b. Chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance c. Child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have mental age of 8 d. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) = (mental age / chronological age) x 100. Original formula for IQ, doesn’t apply to older people (i.e. people in adulthood) 3. Binet Items - Attend to simple instructions such as: name parts of the body, compare lengths and weights, count coins, etc. 4. Stanford-Binet system – The widely used American revision of Binet’s original test. One of the most widely used test we have to measure intelligence for children in America I. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) – most widely used IQ test in America 1. Normal Curve a. The symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes b. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes 2. Deviation IQ
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a. Based on position in the normal curve b. Allows extension of IQ into the adult range 3. Flynn Effect – the results of intelligence tests in different countries show that over the past century average IQ has been increasing at a rate of about 3 points per decade. (100 is still the average but it’s harder than what it was a couple decades ago)
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Psych Exam 3 - Psych Exam 3 I. A. (10/18/07) Intelligence...

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