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Psych Exam 4 - Psych Exam 4 I Therapy A Therapists and...

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Psych Exam 4 I. Therapy (11/13/07) A. Therapists and their training 1. Clinical Psychologists a. Most are psychologists with a Ph. D. and expertise in research, assessment, and therapy, supplemented by a supervised internship b. About half work in agencies and institutions, half in private practice 2. Clinical or psychiatric social worker a. A two year master of social work graduate program plus postgraduate supervision prepares some social workers to offer psychotherapy, mostly to people with everyday personal and family problems b. About half have earned the national association 3. Counselors a. Marriage and family counselors specialize in problems arising from family relations b. Pastoral counselors provide counseling to countless people c. Abuse counselors work with substance abusers and with spouse and child abusers and their victims 4. Psychiatrists a. Physicians who specialize in the treatment of psychological disorders b. Not all psychiatrists have had extensive training in psychotherapy, but as M.D.’s they can prescribe medications. Thus, they tend to see those with the most serious problems c. Many have a private practice
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B. History of Treatment – early treatment s were brutal (religious based) C. Psychotherapy – an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties D. Types of Therapy – assumptions about human nature theories of personality Theories of Psychopathology Theory of Psychotherapy Practice of Psychotherapy 1. Etiology a. the study of the cause of the disease or trouble (not a type of therapy) b. each theory has a different view on the cause of disease/trouble 2. Psychoanalysis – the etiology of mental problems is deeply repressed thoughts, feelings, memories, wishes, etc. a. This repressed material can cause catastrophic damage to the psyche if it becomes conscious. Much of our repressed unconscious occurs when we are very young. People go to great lengths to keep our repressed material out of our consciousness through defense mechanisms. b. Resistance – Unconscious defense strategies designed to keep the patient and therapist from understanding the patient’s problems c. Freud believed the patient’s free associations, slips of the tongue, jokes, and dreams, and the therapist’s interpretations of them – released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight d. Free Association – allowing the mind to wander, saying whatever comes to mind 3. Dream Analysis a. Patients are trained to remember dreams b. Dreams are then analyzed to uncover the latent (underlying) meaning c. Symbols for sexual intercourse:
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i. Climbing a ladder or staircase ii. Riding an elevator or horse or roller coaster iii. Crossing a bridge iv. Walking into a tunnel v. Flying in an airplane d. Transference – The patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (E.g., love or hatred for a parent) e.
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