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Psych Vocab Chap. 3 - Psychology Vocabulary Exam 3 Fall...

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Psychology Vocabulary Exam 3 Fall Semester ‘07 Chapter 10: Cognition : all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing,  remembering, and communicating. Concept : a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas or people. Prototype : a mental image or best example of a category.  Matching new items to  the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category. Algorithm : a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a  particular problem.  Contrasts with the usually speedier- but also more error- prone- use of heuristics. Heuristic : a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and  solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone that  algorithms. Insight : a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it  contrasts with strategy-based solutions. Confirmation Bias : a tendency to search for information that confirms one’s  preconceptions. Fixation : the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to  problem solving. Mental Set : a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way  that has been successful in the past. Functional Fixedness : the tendency to think of things only in terms of the usual  functions; an impediment to problem solving.
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Representativeness Heuristic : judging the likelihood of things in terms of how  well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to  ignore other relevant information. Availability Heuristic Overconfidence : the tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate  the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments. Framing : the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly  affect decisions and judgments. Belief Bias : the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning,  sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem  invalid. Belief Perseverance : clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the bias on which  they were formed has been discredited. Language : our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them  to communicate meaning. Phoneme : in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit. Morpheme : in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word  or a part of a word.
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