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Unformatted text preview: Psychology Vocabulary Exam 3 Fall Semester ‘07 Chapter 10: • Cognition : all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. • Concept : a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas or people. • Prototype : a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category. • Algorithm : a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier- but also more error- prone- use of heuristics. • Heuristic : a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone that algorithms. • Insight : a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions. • Confirmation Bias : a tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions. • Fixation : the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving. • Mental Set : a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past. • Functional Fixedness : the tendency to think of things only in terms of the usual functions; an impediment to problem solving. • Representativeness Heuristic : judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information. • Availability Heuristic : • Overconfidence : the tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments. • Framing : the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments. • Belief Bias : the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid. • Belief Perseverance : clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the bias on which they were formed has been discredited. • Language : our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning. • Phoneme : in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit. • Morpheme : in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word....
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Jackson during the Fall '08 term at Michigan State University.
- Fall '08