Lecture 16 and 17 - Lecture 16 and 17 I II III IV Women in...

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Lecture 16 and 17 I. Women in 1900 II. Women members in U.S III. Two waves of women movements IV. Friedman Lecture 16 Women in 1900 o Everywhere women live under patriarchal rule reinforced by religious sanctions o Everywhere women suffer domestic violence and lack property/political rights o Everywhere but US. Women submit to arranged marriages Mixed changes brought by industrialization/urbanization o Improved standards of living School buildings Sewage projects o Greater independence from traditional family Women worked in factories o New forms of exploitation for poor o Reforms to control middle class women and promote motherhood lead to more autonomy African American Feminism o African Americans were acutely aware of gender oppression o Though the term “black feminism” not used until 1970’s it goes back to the early 1800s when free black women spoke out for women’s rights in the context of abolitionism Frances E.W. Harper Sojourner Truth (“Ain’t I A Women”
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Seneca Falls Convention, 1848 o 1840: Stanton and Mott met at World Anti-Slavery Convention, Mott refused a seat o 1848: Convention address condition of women o Unanimously accept all resolutions but women’s suffrage Fredrick Douglass won its acceptance o 1851: Susan B. Anthony joins the cause First Wave: 19C and Early 20C Women’s Movement o Sexual segregation aids new organizational developments for women o By WWI Western Eurasia, U.S. and Japan pass protective labor legislation Shortening the hours for them Improving working conditions o Reform suffrage movements begin w/help of ideologies o Women’s rights movements provide models for other movements. First Wave: Additional Problems for Women o Socialists: Poverty, not inequality, is the issue o Charlotte Gilman & Virginia Woolf: economic independence and freedom from domesticity and family Economic freedom from being domesticized o Margaret Sanger: reproductive (sexual) independence World War I and Aftermath o Gave new energy to suffrage movement 1915 Denmark and Iceland gave women the right to vote 1917 the Netherlands 1918 and 1919: England and others 1920 United States o Feminism exploded in Russian Rev. of 1917
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