Republicanism:1780. Mean more than ousting the king. Declaration of Independence said government derive “powers from consent of the governed”. (Democratic twist) A state without a monarch/prince that is governed by representatives of ppl. After patriots declared independence, they confronted issue of political authority. In 1776, second continental congress urged US to reject royal authority&build republican governments. Pennsylvania constitution:Grant all taxpaying men right to vote, hold office, create one-house legislature with complete power (no governor to exercise veto. Mandate elementary education&protect citizens from imprisonment for debt) But, alarmed many leading patriots. – i.e. John AdamsJohn Adams:Alarmed at Penn’s democratic constitution. (said unicameral[one-house] law as confusing) To disperse authority&preserve liberty, insisted separate institutions (legislature, executive, judiciary). Also demand bicameral (two-house) legislature with upper house of property owners to offset popular majorities in lower one. Conservative patriots support Adams. (raise property qualification for voting, office holding in 1780 constitution) Thoughts on Government:To counter appeal of Penn constitution, Adams published “Thoughts of Government”. Adapted British Whig Theory of mixed government to republican society. Abigail Adams:Only men could engage in politics (women not insist equality with men, but only end to restrictive law) John Adams’ wife. Demand equal legal rights for married women, who under common law could not own property, enter contracts, initiate lawsuits. Said “Men would be tyrants.” Criticize John Adams and other patriots for emancipating all nations from monarchy while retaining power over wives. Many ppl ignore her requests (except New Jersey, allowed to vote) only white men enjoyed full citizenship.Judith Sargent Murray:In “On the Equality of the Sexes,” Judith argued men&women had equal memory capacities and women had superior imaginations. Concede women were inferior to men in judgment&reasoning, but only from lack of training. (only reason from what we know). Most accomplished female essayist of the Revolutionary era. Advocate for economic independence&better education opportunities for women. Loyalist exodus:War’s losers (suffered severe financial loss). Patriots demand seizure of loyalist properties&its distribution to needy Americans. Patriot merchants replace loyalists at the top of economic ladder with republican entrepreneurs -> this shift facilitate America’s economic development. -> did not result in wide-spread property redistribution, but it encourage ppl to believe that their new republican government will protect their property&ensure widespread access to land. Treated harshly, so, had to leave to Canada/England.