07 - Challenges for the Roman State Key Questions today 1...

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Challenges for the Roman State Key Questions today: 1) How the Romans tried to address the challenges of their sprawling empire 2) What was the political and social infrastructure they set up that would later contribute to the rise of Christianity as a universal religion? I) Necessity of Centralized Empire? a) Civil war in 1 st century BCE i) Gracchi Reforms ii) Marius vs. Sulla iii) The Two Triumverates b) Hadas’s argument that shift to imperial rule was inevitable and necessary i) Provinces mismanaged (1) Governors could tax on a whim ii) Armies unreliable (2) Showed more allegiance w/ individual commanders than to state iii) Senate incompetent and corrupt (1) Example of Jugurtha, King of Numidia in North Africa (2) Brought back to Rome and bribed jury and was released a. Showed that Senate was corrupt b. “In Rome, everything is for sale” iv) Size of the expanding empire necessitated some form of centralized rule II) From “Octavian” to “Augustus” a) Centralized Autocracy i) Julius Caesar’s mistake (1) Mark Antony did not openly mock Senate ii) “Princips” or “First Citizen” (1) Moral prestige associated with this title (2) Military power as Proconsul, Tribune, and governor of key
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07 - Challenges for the Roman State Key Questions today 1...

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