Psyc report 2014 - Inter-relationship between trait...

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Inter-relationship between trait complexes and gender differences of intelligence A study was conducted to test the inter-relationships between the trait-complexes of knowledge and intelligence-as-process following Ackerman’s model of intelligence however the study failed to confirm this model as there was no correlation between knowledge and intelligence-as-process. The second aim was to replicate Ackerman’s findings that females are more likely to score higher on a social test using the personality items of agreeableness, extraversion, social/personal/emotional intelligence measure and the interest items of social and enterprising, whereas males are more likely to score higher on a science/math trait-complex using the items of high school certificate grades of physics, chemistry, maths, biology and interest scales of realistic. The second hypothesis was confirmed and therefore supported Ackerman’s PPIK model that there are intelligence gender differences in relation to social and science social trait complex. 1
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The ability to narrow the individual differences between one’s self that is attributed to intelligence is greatly desired. However there have been many competing theories that have attempted to explain the characteristics that account for an individual’s intelligence. One such theory which proposed a possible explanation for intelligence is the PPIK theory (Ackerman 1996) which is comprised of intelligence-as-process, personality, interests and intelligence-as-knowledge. Ackerman’s PPIK theory draws heavily on Cattel’s investment theory (1957) as it parallels Cattell’s notion of crystallised and fluid intelligence. Similarly, Ackerman’s PPIK theory takes comparable concepts of Hebb’s (1939) Intelligence A (physiologically based) and Intelligence B (experientially based). Ackerman’s PPIK component of intelligence-as-process is an information-processing component, which includes reasoning, memory-span (short-term, or working memory), perceptual speed and spatial rotation. The personality domain that relates to intelligence is believed by Ackerman to correlate weakly with intelligence-as-process but the personality trait of openness (similarly defined intellectence, intelligence, culture) and typical intellectual engagement (TIE) are believed to be related to intelligence especially in the verbal/crystallised ability domain. The component of interests is believed to affect intelligence as can be seen when a person enjoys a particular activity requiring a certain trait hence devoting a greater or lesser amount of cognitive effort to the acquisition of domain-specific knowledge. For example initial success in math related problems might lead to increments in cognitive investment toward acquiring new knowledge in the mathematics domain (Holland, 1959, 1973).Finally the notion of intelligence-as- knowledge draws its similarity to Cattell’s notion of crystallised intelligence where one is believed to increase this part of intelligence throughout most of adulthood, as it is more 2
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This note was uploaded on 10/21/2008 for the course PSYC 2014 taught by Professor Niko during the Two '08 term at University of Sydney.

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Psyc report 2014 - Inter-relationship between trait...

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