Chapter8 Notes

Chapter8 Notes - Visual displays Location of food Predator...

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Language, Thinking and Reasoning Chapter 8 What is language? Language – largely arbitrary system of communication that combines symbols in rule-based ways to create meaning Transmission of information Social and emotional functions Requires implicit abilities to access knowledge, draw conclusions, make decisions, and interpret new phrases Features of Language 4 levels of analysis 1) Phonemes – the sounds 2) Morphemes – Smallest units of meaning 3) Syntax – Grammatical rules that dictate sentence construction 4) Extralinguistic Information –Social context, prior statements by others, nonverbal cues of speaker, etc. Development of language (Notes from video, not reading) Critical Periods Language Processing Areas of the Brain (picture of the brain representing Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas) Other Language Topics Nonhuman Animal Communication Differs in type and complexity Scent marking
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Unformatted text preview: Visual displays Location of food Predator identification Aggression and mating are when communication is most common Other Language Topics Teaching human language to Nonhuman animals Word learning is difficult Requires thousands of trials with reward Syntax is never mastered (except in the African gray parrot!) Sign Language – same brain areas for spoken language Bilingualism, age, and the brain Thinking and Reasoning Thinking – any mental activity or processing of information including learning, remembering, perceiving, feeling, believing, and deciding CATEGORIES (Concepts) SCHEMAS Cognitive Errors Availability Heuristic Thousands avoided flying after September 11, 2001 Representativeness Heuristic Confirmation Bias Hindsight Bias Problem Solving Mental Sets Functional Fixedness...
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Chapter8 Notes - Visual displays Location of food Predator...

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