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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9: Intelligence and IQ Testing What is intelligence? Intelligence Quotient: Systematic means of quantifying differences among people in their intelligence HISTORY Sir Francis Galton (1884) - intelligence is a byproduct of sensory capacity Intelligence as Abstract Thinking Alfred Binet and Henri Simon (1904) - first intelligence test Diverse content: • object naming • word meanings • drawing pictures from memory • completing incomplete sentences • constructing a sentence from three words Intelligence as Abstract Thinking In 1921, a forum of 14 experts agreed that intelligence consists of the abilities to: Reason abstractly Adapt to novel environmental circumstances Acquire knowledge Benefit from experience Americans tend to view intelligence as: the capacity to reason well and learn quickly (“to think on one’s feet”) the ability to amass large amounts of knowledge The little letter g Unlike Galton’s prior sensory measures, the measures on the intelligence test correlated with one another Charles Spearman (1927) - these correlations suggest a single common factor across all aspects of mental ability: g for general intelligence Spearman called the specific abilities s factors Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence Later research found that g wasn’t as uniform as Spearman suggested; some measures were more highly related than others Raymond Cattell (1971) distinguished two types of intelligence Fluid Intelligence- the capacity to learn new problems Crystallized Intelligence - the accumulated knowledge of the world over time Fluid abilities are more related to g and are more likely to decline with age...
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This note was uploaded on 10/21/2008 for the course PSY 0010 taught by Professor Joshuafetterman during the Fall '08 term at Pittsburgh.
- Fall '08