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Exam1 review - Sociology 101 Prelim 1 Review What is...

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Sociology 101 Prelim 1 Review What is Sociology? “The Sociological Eye,” Collins “The Promise of Sociology” Mills Sociology is” “…[T]he study of social life, social change, and the social causes and consequences of human behavior. - Individuals’ experiences, values, and behaviors are directly related to social and historical conditions - Sociology, and the “sociological imagination,” are tools for revealing these conditions and their effects, thus providing the means of understanding – and emancipation! (mills) Population Growth -“The Demographic Transition” Lee Malthus : “An Essay on the Principle of Population” -resource availability -carrying capacity -malthusian catastrophe: population grows geometrically, food production arithmetically. Thus, carrying capacity exceeded, resource scarcity occurs, -inequality increases: population>food, food prices ^, labor cheaper, poor laborers work harder for same amount of food -other methods of pop control: famine, nat disaster, disease, murder, contraception *Neo-Malthusian Theories: Lenski Theory of Societal Evolution: pop growth –> innovation in subsistence technology –> societal development hunter-gatherer –> horticultural –> agrarian –> industrial 1) Malthus ignores role of tech in improving ability of food production 2) Malthus underestimates society’s ability to adapt to population changes Lee Demographic Transition Theory: -Societies will go from high mortality, high fertility to low mortality, low fertility -drop in mortality rates before drop in fertility -stage 1: pre-industrial, mortality high, fertility high 2: developing country, mortality drop, life span increase 3: fertility low (contraception, education, costs) 4: fertility low, mortality low Specialization and Solidarity Spencer: Societal Evolution -Organismic analogy: society is an organic whole, made up of interrelated parts -Social Darwinism: societies evolve over time, like species (social-evol. Model) -Universal law: evolution is a change from state of relatively indefinite, Incoherent homogeneity to definite, coherent heterogeneity Militant: (complexity) homogenous, undifferentiated
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(basis of social ties) hierarchical, obligatory Industrial: heterogeneous, differentiated Contractual, voluntary Population Growth: means: -reproduction -union of separate societies (erase geographic/political bndries, immigrat.) Consequences: -pop growth – division into groups – specialization Differentiation – interdependence Durkheim : The Division of Labor in Society *solidarity -Sociology is “science of morality” -Specialization is most important outcome of pop growth -collective conscience: body of beliefs and sentiments common to average members of society…society over individual
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