Prelim 2 Review

Prelim 2 Review - Prelim 2 Review I Microsociology How...

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Prelim 2 Review I. Microsociology : How individuals interact with society A. Micro vs. Macro: 1) Macro: -treats collectives as the fundamental units of analysis -distinguishes different “types” (pre-indust) of societies and other social forms -attempts to explain how societies change or evolve -uses methodological holism/collectivism a) Criticisms: -overly abstract and theoretical -provides oversimplified models of social phenomena and processes -conducive to the organismic analogy -often fails to specify mechanisms -prioritizes structural forces over individual agency 2) Micro: -treats individual microstructures as fundamental units of analysis, not large group -considers how individual-level characteristics (health, wealth) and behaviors are shaped by social structure -considers how individuals affect society -exercises methodological individualism, often by analyzing survey data B. Simmel: sociology of individual 1) Dyad: -most fundamental social units -instability -triviality -intimacy -divisibility 2) Triad: -stability increases, intimacy decreases -indirect connectedness -divide and conquer -tertius gaudens -coalitions -gatekeeping -brokerage 3) Isolation and freedom: based on existence of ties C. Weber: Social Action 1) Social Action: any action an indiv. Takes with other ppl in mind. Does not include: -behavior oriented towards objects -solitary behavior -non-social contact -coincidental behavior -simple imitation 2) Types of SA: -instrumentally rational -value-rational -affectional -traditional
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II. Social Control and Deviance A. Parsons- Hobbes and the Problem of Social Order -people are naturally self-interested -people want many of the same valuable resources -this leads to competition and conflict 1)challenges to social order: a. some modern social developments (urbanization) create conditions that increase inequality, provide unpleasant working conditions, increase sensory overload, weaken ties to primary groups, etc. b. individuals’ self-interests conflict and create a constant state of competition. In many cases, it makes more sense to look out for oneself than it does to cooperate with others 2) solution: -people have strong drive toward self-preservation -so they form a contract with a sovereign authority for protection from others -in exchange, they are obedient to pay taxes for social control, etc. B. Formal Social Control: official institutional mechanisms to maintain order in society thru prevention/punishment: -manifestation: laws, statues, other written rules -enforcement: police force -sanctioning: determined by judicial system, executed through fines, or imprisonment C. Informal Social Control (Louis Coser): unofficial social mechanisms that prevent ppl from breaching normative order (friendly warnings, ostracism) D. Sumner- Typology of Social Norms -laws: rules, enforced thru formal sanctions -mores: customs, enforced via informal sanctions -folkways: soft norms (etiquette), enforced thru others’ behavioral reactions E. Theories of crime -deviance: crime, delinquency, abnormal behavior, violation of norms
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This note was uploaded on 10/22/2008 for the course SOC 101 taught by Professor Cornwell during the Fall '08 term at Cornell.

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Prelim 2 Review - Prelim 2 Review I Microsociology How...

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