Running head: PERSON-CENTERED AND CLASSICAL ROGERIAN 1 Person-Centered and Classical Rogerian Approaches to Therapy: Development, Evolution, and Modern Methods Kaitlyn O’Connor University of Holy Cross
PERSON-CENTERED AND CLASSICAL ROGERIAN 2 Abstract The focus of this paper is to explore the development and evolution of person-centered therapy (PCT) and the Rogerian approach in the mental health profession. Multiple articles and two books on Carl Rogers and PCT have varying perspectives on the correct therapeutic method. Quinn (2015) argues the classical person-centered approach (PCA) having the six necessary and sufficient conditions is the most successful
PERSON-CENTERED AND CLASSICAL ROGERIAN 3 Formation The formation of person-centered therapy has been identified by four distinct periods in history beginning in 1940’s and continuing thru the 1980’s (Corey, 2013). Before Carl Rogers began developing the person-centered approach, psychoanalysis was the most accepted therapeutic technique (Farber, 2007). Psychoanalysis, as Rogers believed, was less concerned with the patient’s growth, but rather with interpretation and diagnosis during the therapeutic process (Farber, 2007; Lee, 2013). The analytical approach placed too much emphasis on the role of the therapist as an expert. Giving directions suggestions Rogers viewed the psychoanalytic approach as a directive technique (Anderson, 2001). Critical of therapies that were “directive”, Rogers sought to develop an environment that did not depend upon the therapist’s advice or interpretations (Lee, 2011). Breaking away from Freudian psychoanalysis, Rogers began forming the humanistic movement which focused on the relationship of the client and counselor to facilitate change (Corey, 2013). According to Quinn (2015) in 1942, Rogers began hypothesizing a therapeutic approach called “nondirective therapy.” Rogers’ departure from traditional psychoanalysis became revolutionary as he moved away from a medical model. The innovative nondirective approach challenged previously accepted ideas and methods such as the theory of the counselor knowing best (Corey, 2013). Nondirective therapy emerged upon Rogers’ hypothesis that the client understood himself and could be his own agent for change with the trust of the counselor (Quinn, 2015). After years of research Rogers wrote Client-Centered Therapy and changed the name of his approach to “client-centered” in order to stress the importance of the client rather than the methods (Corey, 2013). Rogers was growing frustrated with the misinterpretations of
PERSON-CENTERED AND CLASSICAL ROGERIAN 4 “nondirectivity” and decided further research was needed to clarify the theory (Quinn, 2015). In 1957, Rogers published an article on the goals of nondirective counseling such as personality change.
- Spring '14