Running head: THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH1The Behavioral Approach to Therapy and Counseling Kaitlyn O’Connor University of Holy Cross
THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH2The Behavioral Approach to Therapy and CounselingDemonstrate an understanding of operant conditioning, including examples of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment.B. F. Skinner developed Operant Conditioning by elaborating upon Thorndike’s Law of Effect. Skinner’s belief was that behaviors were mostly influenced by the consequences directly following. If the behavior brought about some reward or eliminated negative stimuli Skinner determined that the action will likely occur again; he called this positive reinforcement (Corey, 2013). For example, a child earning good grades may receive an extra piece of cake. If the child values the extra desert he will work hard to maintain good grades in the hopes of receiving desertas a reward. Negative reinforcement defined by Skinner is the avoidance of disagreeable stimuli.