cogpsychstudyguide - Study Guide for Introduction to...

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Study Guide for Introduction to Cognitive Psychology: Test #1 Chapter 1: Introduction : History: Descartes influences - (1) thinking as the essence of humans (2) mind and body exist and interact What is the mind-body problem? materialism? (3) the body is a machine (4) derived and innate ideas. What is empiricism? associationism? Kant: We do have innate knowledge. What are categories? Influence on modern cognitive psychology: we impose order on the world. Wilhelm Wundt: (founder of psychology) Brought philosophy and physiology together to found psychology. What did he study in the laboratory? What is introspection? Functionalism: influences on Americans to develop it: (1) practicality (2) Darwinism; Asked what is the survival value of a trait? random variation and selection; How did functionalism open up psychology? William James: wrote Principles of Psychology (1890) highly influential, examined many topics about thinking still being studied; What is behaviorism? What did it say can be studied scientifically? What cannot? What are the 6 criticisms of introspection? What was behaviorism’s lasting contribution to psychology? What is an operational definition? What led to the rise of modern cognitive psychology? What was Alan Turing’s contribution? What are the 2 components of the information-processing approach to CP? What is the parallel distributed processing approach? What is cognitive neuroscience? Know these methods in cognitive neuroscience: Brain lesions, Brain-imaging techniques - CT , PET, MRI, fMRI (Which gives information about structure? which about functioning?) What are the advantages of fMRI over PET scans? What is EEG? ERP? Why are ERP signals averaged? What is TMS? What is cognitive science? Which disciplines does it include? What is cognitive psychology? What is ecological validity? Textbook: What is artificial intelligence (AI)? the computer metaphor? pure AI? computer simulation? (textbook, pp. 17-19) Read and understand the 5 themes of the textbook (pp. 24-26) Chapter 2: Perceptual Processes I : What is perception? object recognition (pattern recognition)? a distal stimulus? proximal stimulus? What is the blind spot? Why are we not blind in it? What are contrast effects? What are saccades? How often do they occur? What is their function? Blur during saccades is suppressed during reading? How often do we blink? When do we blink during reading? (moving eyes to a new line, turning the page) Why don’t we notice that we blink? What is Gestalt psychology? What is figure-ground? How is it demonstrated with vase-faces effect? What are illusory contours (visual neurons react as if contours are really there) Theories of recognition: (1) Template-matching theory (“Cookie-cutter theory”): How does it work? What are templates? What are the problems with the theory? (2) Feature-analysis model: How does it work? What is a distinctive feature? What research supports the model? What are feature detectors? What are the problems with the model? (3) Recognition-by-components model (Irving
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cogpsychstudyguide - Study Guide for Introduction to...

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