2008_04_25_17_06_08

2008_04_25_17_06_08 - - l a s no we- win-- . ‘1‘ Q...

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Unformatted text preview: - l a s no we- win-- . ‘1‘ Q “fig—r ‘10 l .(9 / L..,'L.5L\.¢.$"_ Susie fan—FLth i Z. 3 CS 143 * NIIDTERMI Winter 08 "’3' ,‘ f! upcsfl, (- )OLnSM‘. I) For each of the features listed below, indicate whether they are characteristic of Prosimians New World or Old World primates: EtoQ'tmi an; Wet noses prosiW‘MC Many nocturnal N 35; [fl Prehensile rails pro gin-nines Have tethered lips (2W Includes Apes Q r o ‘3'an 5' ans Most dependent on smell Bra s: m [w r Smallest brains Q w Includes largest brains g AM Best digit mobility w____§1_\5L_._.___—Includes Cebus 2) For each of the Cetacean features listed below. indicate whether they are characteristic ofMysn-‘ceti or Odomocen' Qéon-Ln Ce U Some riverine Species [Mala t u gg fl Includes Killer Whale (Ed on Jr0 [Let-t Includes the most primitive species Qty an i3; { c bi Hunt individual prey, often cooperatively £13115 fi- (9i I Have baleen E 1.5 5 It: I t s it Many are “grazers” (2 don ‘ig g: it Have teeth 00' on E 5; ii Many have signature whistles a Aggfiz C, ti Includes Sperm Whale Q girmfig g a l;- Have advanced echolocation abilities -i-.t ceti Includes Blue Whale ad an fig c g :E (‘ Includes best~studied species 3) Compared to rodents. many of whom also have dexterous hands and good vision. how does the pertinent sensory-motor coordination in primates differ? PMMMEfi—flflfi 4} In Allman's chapter about primate brain evolution. he suggests two possible adaptive functions (i.e. behaviors) that may have been served by the improved depth perception provided by binocular vision in the earliest primates. What were those two types of behavior? 5) What are the implications for cognition in a creature who has isclu’al callosities? _. (I {f y NEW all—W W Th} 43.51141; W W_ 6) Which Mystt'cere produces the most complex songs? 7) Which huge [~60') whale can be thought of as a giant dolphin? “Tl/LL Spat—AM WW ' 3a) Does sound travel faster in water or in air? b) By how much? tit/macaw. sexy/W 9) What are the three general classes of vocalizations produced by dolphins? A, EW-W OWL/L omen Pete/c, em 3) Lot/taxes 10a) Which part ofthe dolphin’s skeletal anatomy plays a role in hearing? b) What role does fig play in this function? {f—i'L’t. 11M 001A “(3,. .c e aqua/(A (W- tau-01M I “PM W Lee _Zc/'ir~L welt/k "Z30 a,er 7;“ 1.04,? (16 M 6M ’ [k {in JOHN; W W la.) win CDC [/1 If“ K 11] Circle the correct underlined alternatives in the following. HINT: Read through the entire paragraph before responding. In dolphins, echolocation is initiated in the vocal cords l,“ asal passages? where vibratory structures known as rabbit e—QEI bull horns . that are contiguous with the inner ears i’ 3.535511) make plosive sputters called pure tones itbaa’g'mtafg Each of these sounds. which include Mia: narrow range of frequencies. exits the dolphin's jaw {gigrehead through the’tfi'élonj dorsal bursae. which acts as a kind of lens to focus the outgoing beam of sound. This lens is made offal 2’ muscle. which is provides an impedancréatcblf mismatch to seawater. so Lh' a in a rest deal of energy is lost when the sounds cross from the animal into its environment. Each sound — called a whistle produced in a train of other such sounds. travels to and back from targets in the environment. When one dolphin “listens in" to the echoes of another, its discrimination abilities ar not as goody as good as when it produces the echolocation itself. 12) Briefly describe two types of information that can be carried by the freguencv spectrum of an echo during echolocation. 13) Briefly describe two types of information that can be carried by the relative amplitude of an echo during echolocation. _ . l. ' ‘ - ' \ = LCM. ' T’l/xL W at cut/vs. (3W L/l W #[AJ ill/“J1- W Z) 2) CD rbhm C..W 6% b—L mm W 14) Per Allman. which of the following islare not involved in the visual localization of an object in primates? Forward facing eyes Nonoverlapping tectal maps Centralized fovea Inferior colliculus Parietal lobe Yes Yes WES n or Yes 15) Circle the correct underlined alternatives in the following. HINT: Read through the entire paragraph before responding. In primates. that VentralS! Dorsal pathway begins at the fovea in the central retina and ends in the area of cortex known as /-"'_'—“_ M_Tl@which is in the Occipital (Pei): poralbe. This pathway, sometimes called the ‘} “\VhCI‘C-HOWH pathway! is specialized for processingfcolor]! depth and motion {getailllCells at the end of this pathway play a role in object localization f @nd some are especially responsive-to-faceslf voices. In contrast, the Ventral l’ljorsallpatltway, which begins in the 3.4.. periphery of the retina and ultimately ends in the Temporal {[fimmobe, contributes to a filo-spatial l audio-tactile map. \ __ I’J l6) Briefly contrast visual crossover in monkeys versus dolphins. Eggs/{minimal W as Wo—ri-O'UL-x r6 W .9431: "W ‘W 6311‘“ W vb 71-bit oveng. WW4 17M W W W [7}, (Mr 71',me am 1%.;— u '85:! Mall at], m ' . _ - - —__'_""\ 17) Circle who has a larger absolute brain size: :b‘o'ttlenose dolphin g human? - bottlenose dolphin g @\w.? Tielbus_mo:tggy o_r cat? - chimpanzee g Q; humpback whale? o_r baboon? 18) Circle who has a larger relative brain size tEQ) - bottlenose dolphin EC human?) «wt—3111:?) g killer whale? - gorilla g fbtahobo? - Efiimpanzeefi g baboon? - ring-tailed lemur cat? « sperm whale g h 19a) As described in Ridgway‘s paper on the nervous system of the Bottlenose Dolphin. what two features of neurons in the dolphin's brain enable those Cells to be especially good at hieh-speed transmission of auditory information? +LtrJL b) Name one feature of an adult Bottlenose Dolphin's cortical cyto~architecture that differs from most other large-brained mammals, and list one reason Ridgeway suggests that this may nonetheless NOT indicate that their brains be considered “primitive”. 7%”? W the ,& Ann 994% OM W #4 I'ULMWMWMWC ' 19171432; yaw ,jc: m MAM/5i WIN,"M c) What brain data Indicate that these animals may have a Dual Processing. Svstcm for sound? “,1... l. M 1m.wfiw . . can—l"; oa- I 5 pain} 20a) Which two parts of a primate's body are mapped onto the most disproportionately large areas of its somatosensory cortex? “The W W 1)) Which one part ofa cetacean‘s body is mapped onto the most disproportionately large area of its somatosensory cortex? 14-; W (fa/W 71.4;- cA-CWQ, W c) What do the above indicate regarding the relative acuity of those body surfaces? ) 7 M dank-EM“ c---"’ i' "“ "" d) In cetaceans, a mammalian-atypical cortical area, adjacent to somatosensory cortex. responds equally well to what 2 kinds of stimulation? _, ' t i A b. U ‘ 4-}L g figs/id | ilk/jA/LL a'etbt’thgflflutw‘l- , 21} For each of the following brain areas, indicate if it tends to be larger in dolphins or in ages. I». Cerebellum / . . SuperiorCoiliculus . Hippoeampus (Hm I Corpus Callosum éfi/g/z’ MGN ofThalamus IQ £3233 LGN of Thalamus W4 Olfactory Bulb % Amygdala {WK Inferior Colliculus m Cerebral Cortex IQ 22) Why is “rhinecephalon” an inappropriate name for the Limbic System in cetaccans’.’ I“ -l€h‘-l’" “'7 r3 ‘ H ' ‘ Mail-firm, Wm MMWWF 23) What are the two types of stimuli to which primate “mirror cells" respond? 2421) Briefly describe 2 ways that sleep in dolphins is different from sleep in apes. WWW—ET REM Wp_ 17W mot/7 Wait/f a‘b UAW W ’b‘AIQ/L/L Meow—tip fix— a awe... 719% mi AW WW . b) The above imnabled by the significant reduction of what brain structure? The cow M, Q 25a) In a bottlcnose dolphin. what is the area of cortex that covers thcextensive medial wall of both hemispheres called? _---""- r \ .LF- /\ flffiur'i¢«l___’.~"~’\ filial—Cy Ph\I’-‘b‘ b) This area may roughly correspond to what cortical area in primates that likewise has extensive reciprocal connections to the Iimbic svstem? 1/2/st first/mitt}? my 26) Which hemisphere of the dolphin‘s cerebral cortex is larger? .71AL b) In chimpanzees. the asymmetrical Plenum Temper-ale, involved in vocal communication, is larger in which hemisphere? "1"”be c} Which hemisphere. presumably in both species. tends to be dominant for reading and expressing emotion? "M. W. 27') Select the cognitive skill. from the following list. that is best characterized by each of the requirements below (use each once} Cross-Modal Matching Invisible Displacement Tertiary Relations Schema Weigl Principle M Requires repeated experience with variable instantiations of a role l n v i 2 (his. I) tsglarc M‘ Requires an inference regarding the range of possible. but unseen, events UJP. 3- i 'r r: LC. Requires task-specific, selective attention to one particular feature ofthe stimuli T A? r ’F- a r :4 w «film r Requires a subject to manipulate at least two objects I for: ' Plale Haida->1? Requircs a translation from one perceptual representation to another 28) Chose the task name listed on the left that is appropriate for the testing protocol described on the right {5/ Analogy (Conceptual MTS) l M T g Sample A: Correct response: A versus B //i/ Conditional MTS {7 4’ A; tall 59 Sample B: Correct response: A versus B Identity MTS cold (5.5144 g 2W2 Sample AA; Correct response: X versus Y Oddity Melon 1} /"l TS Sample AA; Correct response: BB versus CD Proportions I ‘ Sample 5/: Cup; Correct response: 5/: Apple vs. 3/3 Apple Reversal Learning E231: i— t?” “'b} Correct response: A vs. B, B vs. A. A vs. B. etc. Same Different 2 can £.£i! tir 3f A>B. B>C, C>D; Correct response: A>C versus C>A Transitivity {onclii Iga ; l MT 5 Sample A: Correct response: B versus C 29) According to the Herman, Pack, & Morrel-Samuels article on dolphin cognition. dolphins . . . . . . _—_.'_"‘--_- '- a) are better at dtscrtmtnattng static g@) b) show that'tfie-fgb gr do not understand syntactic relations when they fail to respond to many anomalous sequences? cad/o) g do not demonstrate object permanence when they use the "No" paddle? 30) During the “Trap Tube Test". would you predict that the ratio of activity in prefrontal cortex (vs. parietal cortex) would be greater in Chimpanzees g in Cebus monkeys? in WWW., WW, sac/W Nahu- 91 spa/t 7th; 7W Gilmore—W W 99W ;Ul—U’i iréwfl WWW”? CS) 31) Circle the correct underlined alternatives in the following. HINT: Read through the entire paragraph before responding. As described in Thompson & Oden, a primate tt’ttin-Jd on Identin HTS will éwili r109 readily transfer to Conditional MTS, unlike :1 pigeon who/will Qwill not show savings on the second task. This is presumably the case because the/"pl Ee 6'3" {primate has learned the basrc rule of; see one. pick one}! see one. match It , which applies to both tasks. while the organizes its respouse to the first task according to the perceptual rcan'c'eémap features of that task, which do not apply to the second task. Comparing monkey and ape performance on such tasks, monkeys t' apesé’b'oth Show transfer u-‘r'rhiri a task, while monkeys ff-pwfhoiv first trial success. On most such tasks. dolphin performance is most similar to monkeys g apes}! pigeons. 32a) Under what conditions do number-trained chimpanzees fail on the "Greedy Giveaway Task"? MM” W W 4-11.0, JUl/nt: W 'UM/vl M b) Under what conditions do they succeed? I p b) During the version of the above task at which they succeed. would you predict that there should be more g less activity in the Orbito-Frontal cortex than during the_version in which they fail? m 'l-L‘ Lem/Um flow M} W 33) Why did fhe vgry first language study with a chimpanzee fail? . I m fWWWWMDVM/M.twmmam Fl’lkj‘iiolljtco/Q W AIM 34) Briefly describe one positive aspect of the sign language studies with apes and one negative aspect. ‘ l ‘ mmdnkafll Ff M ‘ W LAG/arm I Co air—«s o VIA v c [a 35) How did Savage~Rumbaugh alter the methodology used with the chimp Lana and her computer keyboard to overcome her failure to learn the symbolic nature of the keys? ‘ . {MI km W 0- _-M' we‘d W color-of blue-triangle", what color square did Sarah choose and why? PM. {AW WWW? [Zeal Ojeflfic.’ 36} When asked to complete the sentence. “ 37) Which of the following wasfwere NOT demonstrated in language studies with non-humans? a) Respond differentially to A tickle B vs. B tickle A 'T (3 U E in) Learn a new term from its place in a familiart sentence form 7' l2 U E @Predominant use of declaratives over imperatives FA LS E: d) Generation of and response to novel combinations of terms. 41 ,Q DE .—~-"___“\ g BONUS POINTS: XX} List ihe Latin and common names of three primate species. II) M UW-O-flfi Hmmo w 2) CM‘IMPCZ Bil? ‘trofl locrlj'L'Ef ’3) EnwaboS'. Pan Baniscus Cwmq : (ammo. XX) List the Latin and common namas ofthree celacean species. Owlij 4:0V1'. Portia Mata; O OH“: Orc'muc ol'CoL Z) Eai-Hanou OOEFMMI‘ Tum-3‘09? ‘twnhkuq A‘i'lomih TUrq'aES aduncU'; ’3) 682mm WM: vkjéeflr Cockrodma i-‘iUu-«PbggK Who—EL: ngE-Ecrfi hovaenjim genfia Mu DQEWMEHWE muons HOLY Cora-J .H.,l ...
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2008_04_25_17_06_08 - - l a s no we- win-- . ‘1‘ Q...

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