Lecture+10+Water - Lecture9Weathering Exam1 12 10 8 6 4 2 0...

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Lecture 9 Weathering
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Average = 75 Std Dev = 11 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Exam 1
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Providence Canyon, Georgia
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Soil Soil erosion Soil erosion and sedimentation can cause Reservoirs to fill with sediment Contamination by pesticides and fertilizers
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Weathering creates ore deposits Process called secondary enrichment Concentrates metals into economical deposits Takes place in one of two ways Removing undesired material from the decomposing rock, leaving the desired elements behind Desired elements are carried to lower zones and deposited
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Weathering Reactions Carbonic Acid Formation H 2 O + CO 2 H 2 CO 3 H+ + HCO 3 - Congruent Dissolution of Calcite CaCO 3 + H 2 CO 3 Ca2+ + 2HCO 3 - Incongruent Dissolution of Feldspar 4KAlSi 3 O 8 + 4H++ 2H 2 O 4K++ Al 4 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 8 +8SiO 2 Calcite Orthoclase Kaolinite
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Mass Wasting The downslope movement of rock, regolith, and soil under the direct influence of gravity Gravity is the controlling force Important triggering factors Saturation of the material with water Destroys particle cohesion Water adds weight
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Mass Wasting Important triggering factors Oversteepening of slopes Unconsolidated granular particles assume a stable slope called the angle of repose Stable slope angle is different for various materials Oversteepened slopes are unstable Removal of anchoring vegetation Ground vibrations from earthquakes
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Figure 4.23
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Figure 4.24
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Figure 4.25
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Mass Wasting Types of mass wasting processes Generally each type is defined by The material involved – debris, mud, Earth, or rock The movement of the material Fall (free-fall of pieces) Slide (material moves along a well-defined surface) Flow (material moves as a viscous fluid)
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Mass Wasting Types of mass wasting processes Generally each type is defined by The rate of the movement Fast Slow Forms of mass wasting Slump Rapid movement along a curved surface Occur along oversteepened slopes
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A slump with an earthflow at the base
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Mass Wasting Types of mass wasting processes Forms of mass wasting Rockslide Rapid Blocks of bedrock move down a slope Debris flow (mudflow) Rapid flow of debris with water Often confined to channels Serious problem in dry areas with heavy rains Debris flows composed mostly of volcanic materials are called lahars
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Forms of mass wasting Figure 4.25
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