GenderRace_6

GenderRace_6 - Trends in the Labor Force Share of the...

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1 Gender, Race and Ethnicity in the Labor Market Ch 12 pp. 389-395, 420-429 Trends in the Labor Force 47.5 46.5 45.4 43.3 Women 14.7 12.4 8.9 6.1 Hispanics 5.5 4.1 4.0 2.5 Asians and Native Americans 12.2 11.4 11.1 10.3 Blacks 65.5% 71.3% 77.1% 81.3% Whites (non-hispanic) 2012 2002 1992 1982 Year Share of the Civilian Labor Force (Ehrenberg and Smith) Trends in the Labor Force Non-whites are comprising an increasingly large fraction of the labor force. – Legislative action (e.g. affirmative action) – Increasing share of population • Birth rates are higher for non-whites • Immigration Women are comprising an increasingly large fraction of the labor force. – Legislative action (e.g. affirmative action) – Changing social norms – Technology has allowed household production to become more capital intensive. Earnings Differences 96% $58,427 Asian Males 48% $29,154 Hispanic Females 58% $35,160 Hispanic Males 55% $33,513 Black Females 67% $40,780 Black Males 73% $44,482 Asian Females 67% $40,565 White Females 100% $60,927 White Males Percentage Mean Earnings Group Mean Earnings as a Percentage of White Male Earnings, 2003 Full-Time Workers, Over 24 Years Old (Ehrenberg and Smith) Earnings Differences With the exception of Asian males, minority workers earn, on average, considerably less than white males. The male-female earnings gap is significantly larger for whites than for blacks and Hispanics. The groups that are growing most rapidly, in terms of
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GenderRace_6 - Trends in the Labor Force Share of the...

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