All Else Equal•Each of the predictions of economic theory presented earlier included the phrase “all else equal.”•Sometimes the same phrase is written “holding all other factors constant” or “ceteris paribus” (from Latin).•In any case, the phrase emphasizes the point that there are always multiple independent variables that affect the same economic dependent variable.•Because the predictions of economic theory assume that the other factors are held constant, a test of the theory should account for those factors as well.
Multivariate Regression Analysis•The univariate regression analysis presented earlier implicitly assumed that no other factors influenced quit rates in firms.•To account for other factors, one can simply add an additional independent variable into the regression equation.•In this case, the average age of the workers in a firm might affect the quit rate.•Older workers are less likely to quit their jobs than young workers.
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Data•Firms 1-3 have employees whose average age is less than 40 while firms 4-6 have employees whose average age is greater than 40. 111000Ai> 40> 40> 40< 40< 40< 40Average Age101261510520843083356240%41Quit RateAverage WageFirm