363 lecture 13-2008 - genetics 2

363 lecture 13-2008 - genetics 2 - (A Divergence then...

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(A) Divergence, then gradual population expansion of the Amerind ancestors from their East Central Asian gene pool (blue arrow). (B) Proto-Amerind occupation of Beringia with little to no population growth for ≈20,000 years. (C) Rapid colonization of the New World by a founder group migrating southward through the ice free, inland corridor between the eastern Laurentide and western Cordilleran Ice Sheets (green arrow) and/or along the Pacific coast (red arrow).
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Turtles Vulnerable to Slight Climate Change . Earthtimes.org, February 21, 2007. "An international team of researchers led by British scientists has concluded that North American marine turtles are being placed at a huge risk if global warming levels are not reined in. [The researchers said] that if the temperature rises even by one degree Celsius, the birth of male turtles could be in jeopardy. Furthermore if the temperature rises by three degree Celsius, there is a risk of high infant mortality. The researchers arrived at this conclusion after analyzing over 26 years of data concerning the turtles. The details of their findings appear in the latest issue of Global Change Biology. .. The study was conducted by the Exeter University and Bald Head Island Conservancy and the North Carolina Wildlife Resources. The researchers recommend that special care be taken of the breeding grounds in order to protect the turtles. Beaches in Florida have a 90 percent female population, while those in North Carolina have a 42 percent male population. Identifying the areas where males dominate is necessary to ensure protection, the scientists said."
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Dusky seaside sparrow Extinct: 16 June 1987
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Morepork 1986: a single female left on Norfolk island 2 males of a New Zealand subspecies imported, creating hybrids, which mated
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One pair of homologous chromosomes Another pair of homologous chromosomes With homozygous alleles at one locus With heterozygous alleles at a different locus 10% of all loci in the average human are heterozygous
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Gene pool: N = 3 individuals containing 6 alleles at this locus; Three kinds of alleles Allelic Diversity
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If N = population size then 2N = number of alleles in the population at this locus
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Allele Frequencies in Gene pools Population 1 N = 8 (7 homozygous) 2N = 16 alleles f (blue) = 1/16 f (red) = 15/16 Population 2 N = 8 2N = 16 alleles f (blue) = 5/16 f (red) = 4/16 f (green) = 5/16 f (black) = 2/16 Low diversity High diversity
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Given allele frequencies, calculate the number of copies of alleles in a population If N = 25 individuals, and 2N = 50 alleles allele allele freq. # copies r 0.5 0.5 x 50 = 25 b 0.3 0.3 x 50 = 15 g 0.2 0.2 x 50 = 10 total = 1.0 = 50 25’
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Given genotype frequencies, calculate allele frequencies in a gene pool Alleles = A, a Genotypes = AA, Aa, aa Frequency of allele A: f (A) = f (AA) + 1/2 f (Aa) Frequency of allele a:
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363 lecture 13-2008 - genetics 2 - (A Divergence then...

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