Sue and Sue 6 th Edition Counseling the Culturally Diverse: Theory and Practice
– Imposition of White, Western, male, heterosexual, middle-class standards upon individuals who are culturally diverse. – Psychologists are supposed to adhere to the notion of an unyielding, universal psychology that is applicable to all populations. – In reality the policies and practices of mental health systems reflect this ethnocentric orientation. – They are often culturally inappropriate and antagonistic to the lifestyles and values of minorities in our society. Ethnocentric Monoculturalism
− Belief in Superiority i.Western cultures are “more advanced.” ii.Lighter skin, eyes, and hair color is valued. iii.Christianity is superior to other religions. iv.Individualism and the Protestant work ethic are highly valued. v.White Privilege—advantages Whites in society. − Belief in the Inferiority of Others i.Non-western characteristics (e.g., dark complexion, non-Christian religions) are inferior. ii.Culturally diverse groups may be seen as less intelligent, less qualified, more unpopular, and my possess undesirable traits.
− Power to Impose Standards i.The dominant group has the power to impose standards on non-dominant groups. ii.Minorities can be biased, can hold stereotypes, and can believe that their way is the best way. Yet if they do not have the power to impose their values on others, then hypothetically they cannot oppress. iii.It is power or the unequal status relationship between groups that defines ethnocentric monoculturalism. iv.Ethnocentric monoculturalism is the individual, institutional, and cultural expression of the superiority of one group’s cultural heritage over another combined with the possession of power to impose those standards broadly on the less powerful grou p.
− Manifestation in Institutions i.Includes institutional racism which is a set of policies and practices that subjugate and oppress individuals (e.g., systems of promotion and tenure). − Invisible Veil i.Since all people are products of cultural conditioning, their values and beliefs (worldviews) represent an invisible veil that operates outside the level of conscious awareness and as a result, people assume universality: that regardless of race, culture, ethnicity, or gender, everyone shares the nature of reality and truth. ii.No one is born wanting to be racist, sexist, or homophobic. Misinformation related to culturally diverse groups is not acquired by our free choice, but rather is imposed through a painful process of cultural conditioning.
– The European-American worldview can be described as possessing the following values and beliefs: rugged individualism, competition, mastery and control over nature, a unitary and static conception of time, religion based on Christianity, separation of science and religion, and competition.
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- Spring '14