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EDP exam1 notes - Anxiety Sexuality is an area rife with...

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9/03/08 Anxiety Sexuality is an area rife with anxiety, from performance anxiety to identity anxiety to “the glass is too full” anxiety (emotions that you are barely managing to keep under control) Social-Biological Theory We transmit genes which bestow attributes to our offspring Attributes which increase our chances for survived and reproduction are passed along #1 goal of species: to reproduce Sexual strategies and perceived mate value o Mate value (hers); to bear his little DNA carrier and not die in the process o Mate value (his); to be able to support that little longhorn through human dependency(?) The politics of biology; stud vs slut o It makes no evolutionary sense for a man to risk the DNA hunting for someone else’s offspring o Therefore, it’s “essential” for him to know whose baby she’s carrying Is your culture open or repressed? o The culture of your family and ancestors o The culture of USA in 2008 o The culture at UT o Sex: from the Latin “to cut” or “to divide” Implications of more than one sex? DSM=diagnostic and statistical manual of the American
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Psychiatric Association: a book of diagnoses and symptoms Very cultural bound A medical model Symptoms and diagnoses o Consider Masters and Johnson and the “Human Sexual Response Cycle”; huge impact on our thinking about sexual functioning o But consider their subjects, their assumptions, and the aim of their research Contemporary America 1. Subjectively “normal” If you think it’s normal, then it’s normal Depends on personality and background 2. Statistically “normal” 3. Idealistically “normal” 4. Culturally “normal” 5. Clinically “normal” Psychoanalytic (Freud 1856-1939) Sex is central Everything will prove to be physical (?) Discover more about biochemistry later Even children are sexual Freud performed tests on sexually abused women ID-Ego-Superego o Superego: the conscience o Ego: the “I”; mediates between Id and Reality
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o Id: The irrational, the primitive All desire and needs, dreams and nightmares Behavioral (Skinner, et al) Behaviors are learned and can be unlearned (e.g. by aversion) Operant conditioning: we learn behaviors through reinforcement and punishment Negative reinforcement: removal of an unpleasant stimulus (step off the hot coals) Random intermittent schedule of positive reinforcement: guaranteed to keep you hooked (such as gambling) Cognitive Theory Cognition: information processing. Includes attention, information gathering, memory, and motivation Thoughts and perceptions lead to interpretation and emotions, and all these factors influence behavior. Erroneous beliefs can lead to problems DATA – INTERPRETATION – EMOTIONS Feminist Theory Changing definition of “normal” The role of power in sex and gender Different models of understanding people Performed test on young boys and girls Boys: logical thinking, A-B-C-D order Girls: relationship
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