exam 2 notes - Hijra male to female transgender in India...

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10/1/08 Hijra: male to female transgender in India and Pakistan “Sex”- biological male or female? Genetic sex: chromosomes (XX female, XY male, etc) - hormon es (Androgens or Estrogen predo minating) Prenat al Sexual Differentiation - 1 st six weeks, we’re all the same: o primitive external genitals o pairs of sexually undifferentiated gonads o 2 sets of primitive duct structures: o Müllerian (female) – develop into fallopian tubes o Wolffian (male) - then, if you have the Y chromosomes, testes begin to differentiate Intersexuality: atypical chromosomal and hormonal conditions -“ambiguous” genitalia occur in about 1 in every 2000 births o the most common forms 1. chromosomal Turner Syndrome (XO female) can’t reproduce male appearance and characteristics Klinefelter Syndrome (XXY male) 2. hormonal androgen – insensitivity syndrome: male whose body is unable to utilize androgen Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: female whose genitals appear male. Internal organs normal. Fertile DHT deficiency: male with very underdeveloped penis, partially formed internal gonads, no prostate Gender Assignment : The labeling of the newborn as “male” or “female”
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Gender Identity : Your personal, social, and legal status as “male” or “female” Gender Role : the role(s) you are expected to play as a “male” or “female” in your particular culture Gender typing : process by which we acquire 00 behavior which is deemed appropriate to our gender Gender-role attitude : the beliefs you have about yourself and other re: “appropriate” male and female traits and activities Gender-role behavior : things you do as a “male” or “female” Gender presentation : what you do as perceived by others Androgyny o psychological androgyny: possession of both stereotypically masculine and feminine traits o masculine and androgynous people of both genders tend to be better adjusted psychologically than are feminine or undifferentiated persons; (undifferentiated: low in both masculinity and femininty) o Psychologically androgynous men and women tend to be more comfortable with their sexuality than are masculine men or feminine women Why our need to separate straight vs other? 1. sex is for reproduction 2. hierarchical society: Us vs. them o distribution of power 3. xenophobia o fear of strangers 4. nature vs. nurture: o essentialism (“the truth:” stable, scientific, objective) vs. social constructionism (narrative, plastic, individual) o “homophobia is a profound part of socialization into hegemonic masculinity” (p. 212) Hegemony: preponderant influence or authority over others; domination o “fag talk and fag imitations serve as a discourse with which boys discipline themselves and each other” (p. 213) o “fag” = to fail at masculine competence o “Hegemonic” masculinity requires that anything remotely feminine be renounce” (p. 213) – except, of course, you must love women
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Erotic plasticity  o the degree to which innate sexual responses are shaped and altered by social, cultural, and 
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