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chapter 13 - Chapter 13 Psychology of Victims I Perception...

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Chapter 13: Psychology of Victims I. Perception of Victims Attribution theory: reach conclusions about what caused a given behavior by considering both personal and environmental factors o Dispositional attributions: when considering someone else’s actions, rely on the person’s ability level, personality, or even temporary states as explanation for the conduct Blaming the victim II. Types of Victims Victimization includes rape, racial or religious discrimination, assault, burglary Homosexual youths are at a higher rate of victimization o Therefore, higher rates of substance abuse and suicidal ideation AIDS sufferers are stigmatized Technology brings new forms of victimization: cyberstalking, identity theft III. Victims of Violent Crime Most legal rights formally protected int eh adversarial system are extended to defendants, not victims Victim’s rights movement o Victimology: process and consequences of victimization experiences and how victims and survivors recover o Increased availability of services to crime victims o Expanded opportunity for victims to participate in the trials of their victimizers through mechanisms such as victim impact statements o Heightened focus on victims brought about by new journals, organizations, and commissions Is Violence Inherited? o Abused/neglected children were significantly more likely to have been arrested for violent crimes as juveniles or as adults Younger at the time of their first arrest, committed more crimes This may even undermine the effect Significantly more abused/neglected adults were arrested 20 years later o Abused children displayed increased levels of adverse mental health and reported more alcohol problems Possibly due to not controlling for other stressful life events IV. Violent Victimization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD: continue to experience intense, fear-related reactions when reminded of a trauma o Frequent reexperiencing of the invent through thoughts and nightmares
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o Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and a general numbing or deadening of emoitnos o Increased physiological arousal resulting in exaggerated startle responses and trouble sleeping Affected by extent of injury during trauma Prevention: o Providing immediate social support for trauma victims o Four-session prevention course that educates about PTSD, trains in skills such as relaxation, emotionally reliving the trauma to defuse lingering fears, and cognitive restructuring to help replace negative beliefs about competence with more realistic appraisals o Victims completing the course had fewer PTSD symptoms V. Battered Spouses Prevalence Rate o Physical abuse is prevalent in couples o Male/female have the same rate against each other but male to female is more likely to result in injury Also, a significant portion of women who are murdered are murdered by their male partners Myths and Exaggerated Beliefs o
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