self efficacy.pdf - Self-Efficacy Albert Bandura Stanford...

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1Self-EfficacyAlbert BanduraStanford UniversityBandura, A. (1994).Self-efficacy.In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.),Encyclopedia ofhumanbehavior(Vol. 4, pp. 71-81).New York: Academic Press. (Reprinted in H. Friedman[Ed.],Encyclopedia of mental health.San Diego: Academic Press, 1998).
2I.Sources of Self-Efficacy BeliefsII.Efficacy-Mediated ProcessesIII.Adaptive Benefits of Optimistic Self-Beliefs of EfficacyIV.Development and Exercise of Self-Efficacy Over the LifespanGlossaryAffective Processes:Processes regulating emotional states and elicitation of emotional reactions.Cognitive Processes:Thinking processes involved in the acquisition, organization and use ofinformation.Motivation:Activation to action. Level of motivation is reflected in choice of courses of action, and inthe intensity and persistence of effort.Perceived Self-Efficacy:People's beliefs about their capabilities to produce effects.Self-Regulation:Exercise of influence over one's own motivation, thought processes, emotional statesand patterns of behavior.Perceived self-efficacy is defined as people's beliefs about their capabilities to producedesignated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives. Self-efficacy beliefs determine how people feel, think, motivate themselves and behave. Such beliefsproduce these diverse effects through four major processes. They include cognitive,motivational, affective and selection processes.A strong sense of efficacy enhances human accomplishment and personal well-being inmany ways. People with high assurance in their capabilities approach difficult tasks aschallenges to be mastered rather than as threats to be avoided. Such an efficacious outlookfosters intrinsic interest and deep engrossment in activities. They set themselves challenginggoals and maintain strong commitment to them. They heighten and sustain their efforts in theface of failure. They quickly recover their sense of efficacy after failures or setbacks. Theyattribute failure to insufficient effort or deficient knowledge and skills which are acquirable.They approach threatening situations with assurance that they can exercise control over them.Such an efficacious outlook produces personal accomplishments, reduces stress and lowersvulnerability to depression.In contrast, people who doubt their capabilities shy away from difficult tasks which theyview as personal threats. They have low aspirations and weak commitment to the goals theychoose to pursue. When faced with difficult tasks, they dwell on their personal deficiencies, onthe obstacles they will encounter, and all kinds of adverse outcomes rather than concentrate onhow to perform successfully. They slacken their efforts and give up quickly in the face ofdifficulties. They are slow to recover their sense of efficacy following failure or setbacks.

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Term
Winter
Professor
AMDRES PALOMERA

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