Bio 105 Campbell Chapter 4 Outline

Bio 105 Campbell Chapter 4 Outline - Ch4 Carbon has a total...

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Ch4 Carbon has a total of 6 electrons, with 2 in the first electron shell and 4 in the second shell. Carbon usually completes its valence shell by sharing its 4 electrons with other atoms in covalent bonds so that 8 electrons are present. Each carbon atom thus acts as an intersection point from which a molecule can branch off in up to four directions. Tetravalence is one facet of carbon’s versatility that makes large, complex molecules possible. Carbon’s most frequent partners are oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. CO 2 : two double bonds. Carbon skeleton variation: skeletons vary in length and may be straight, branched, or arranged in closed rings. Hydrocarbons: organic molecules consisting only of carbon and hydrogen. Major components of petroleum, which is called a fossil fuel because it consist of the partially decomposed remains of organisms that lived millions of years ago. Although hydrocarbons are nit prevalent in living organisms, many of a cell’s organic molecules have regions consisting of only carbon and hydrogen.
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2008 for the course BIO G 105 taught by Professor Campbell,d. during the Fall '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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