Bio 105 Campbell Chapter 5 Outline

Bio 105 Campbell Chapter 5 Outline - Ch5 Macromolecule:...

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Ch5 Macromolecule: giant molecules/ carbohydrates, lipids proteins: chainlike polymers: long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds/ monomers: building blocks of polymers Condensation Reaction/ Dehydration Reaction: Monomers are connected by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to eachother through loss of a water molecule; molecule loses water/ The cells must expend energy to carry out these dehydration reactions and the process occurs only with the help of enzymes, specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions in cells. Hydrolysis: break with water/ bonds between monomers are broken by the addition of water molecules Carbohydrates: sugar; monosaccharides (ex. glucose C6H12O6): carbonyl group and mutiple hydroxyl groups and depending on the location of the carbonyl group, a sugar is either an aldose or a ketose/ disaccharides(ex. glucose + glucose = sucrose- table sugar): two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage, a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharide by dehydration synthesis (ex. lactose + lactose = galactose)/ polysaccharides Glucose, fructose, and other sugars that have six carbons are called hexoses. Trioses (three-carbon sugars) and pentoses (five-carbon sugars) What seems like a small difference is significant enough to give the two sugars distinctive shapes and behaviors. Glucose molecules, as well as most other sugars, form rings in aqueous solutions. Cellular respiration, cells extract the energy stored in glucose molecules. Carbon skeletons serve as raw material for the synthesis of other types of small organic molecules, such as fatty acids and amino acids. Polysaccharides: Starch- glucose monomers mostly joined by 1-4 linkages/ the angle of these bonds makes the polymer helical (potato tubers and grain; fruit of whet, corn, rice- major sources of starch in the human diet) Glycogen: polysaccharide stored by animals- a polymer of glucose that is like amylopectin but more extensively branched; mainly stored in liver and muscle cells Cellulose: the most abundant organic compound on Earth/ polymer of glucose but the
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Bio 105 Campbell Chapter 5 Outline - Ch5 Macromolecule:...

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