American Government Final Exam - Study Guide.pdf - American Government Final Exam Study Guide 1 Caucus a form of candidate nomination that occurs in a

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Unformatted text preview: American​ ​Government​ ​Final​ ​Exam​ ​-​ ​Study​ ​Guide 1. Caucus:​ ​a​ ​form​ ​of​ ​candidate​ ​nomination​ ​that​ ​occurs​ ​in​ ​a​ ​town-hall​ ​style​ ​format​ ​rather than​ ​a​ ​day-long​ ​election;​ ​usually​ ​reserved​ ​for​ ​presidential​ ​elections 2. closed​ ​primary:​ ​an​ ​election​ ​in​ ​which​ ​only​ ​voters​ ​registered​ ​with​ ​a​ ​party​ ​may​ ​vote​ ​for​ ​that party’s​ ​candidates 3. coattail​ ​effect:​ ​the​ ​result​ ​when​ ​a​ ​popular​ ​presidential​ ​candidate​ ​helps​ ​candidates​ ​from​ ​his or​ ​her​ ​party​ ​win​ ​their​ ​own​ ​elections 4. Delegates:​​ ​party​ ​members​ ​who​ ​are​ ​chosen​ ​to​ ​represent​ ​a​ ​particular​ ​candidate​ ​at​ ​the party’s​ ​state-​ ​or​ ​national-level​ ​nominating​ ​convention 5. incumbency​ ​advantage:​​ ​the​ ​advantage​ ​held​ ​by​ ​officeholders​ ​that​ ​allows​ ​them​ ​to​ ​often​ ​win reelection​ ​(​Incumbent​:​ ​the​ ​current​ ​holder​ ​of​ ​a​ ​political​ ​office) 6. midterm​ ​elections:​ ​the​ ​congressional​ ​elections​ ​that​ ​occur​ ​in​ ​the​ ​even-numbered​ ​years between​ ​presidential​ ​election​ ​years,​ ​in​ ​the​ ​middle​ ​of​ ​the​ ​president’s​ ​term 7. open​ ​primary:​ ​an​ ​election​ ​in​ ​which​ ​any​ ​registered​ ​voter​ ​may​ ​vote​ ​in​ ​any​ ​party’s​ ​primary or​ ​caucus 8. Platform:​ ​the​ ​set​ ​of​ ​issues​ ​important​ ​to​ ​the​ ​political​ ​party​ ​and​ ​the​ ​party​ ​delegates 9. political​ ​action​ ​committees:​ ​organizations​ ​created​ ​to​ ​raise​ ​money​ ​for​ ​political​ ​campaigns and​ ​spend​ ​money​ ​to​ ​influence​ ​policy​ ​and​ ​politics 10. shadow​ ​campaign:​​ ​ ​a​ ​campaign​ ​run​ ​by​ ​political​ ​action​ ​committees​ ​and​ ​other organizations​ ​without​ ​the​ ​coordination​ ​of​ ​the​ ​candidate 11. top-two​ ​primary:​ ​a​ ​primary​ ​election​ ​in​ ​which​ ​the​ ​two​ ​candidates​ ​with​ ​the​ ​most​ ​votes, regardless​ ​of​ ​party,​ ​become​ ​the​ ​nominees​ ​for​ ​the​ ​general​ ​election 12. personal​ ​politics:​ ​a​ ​political​ ​style​ ​that​ ​focuses​ ​on​ ​building​ ​direct​ ​relationships​ ​with​ ​voters rather​ ​than​ ​on​ ​promoting​ ​specific​ ​issues 13. Capitalism: 14. Fascism:​​ ​a​ ​political​ ​system​ ​of​ ​total​ ​control​ ​by​ ​the​ ​ruling​ ​party​ ​or​ ​political​ ​leader​ ​over​ ​the economy,​ ​the​ ​military,​ ​society,​ ​and​ ​culture​ ​and​ ​often​ ​the​ ​private​ ​lives​ ​of​ ​citizens 15. Socialism:​​ ​a​ ​political​ ​and​ ​economic​ ​system​ ​in​ ​which​ ​government​ ​uses​ ​its​ ​authority​ ​to promote​ ​social​ ​and​ ​economic​ ​equality,​ ​providing​ ​everyone​ ​with​ ​basic​ ​services​ ​and​ ​equal opportunities​ ​and​ ​requiring​ ​citizens​ ​with​ ​more​ ​wealth​ ​to​ ​contribute​ ​more 16. Communism:​​ ​a​ ​political​ ​and​ ​economic​ ​system​ ​in​ ​which,​ ​in​ ​theory,​ ​government​ ​promotes common​ ​ownership​ ​of​ ​all​ ​property,​ ​means​ ​of​ ​production,​ ​and​ ​materials​ ​to​ ​prevent​ ​the exploitation​ ​of​ ​workers​ ​while​ ​creating​ ​an​ ​equal​ ​society;​ ​in​ ​practice,​ ​most​ ​communist governments​ ​have​ ​used​ ​force​ ​to​ ​maintain​ ​control 17. Bipartisanship:​​ ​a​ ​process​ ​of​ ​cooperation​ ​through​ ​compromise 18. divided​ ​government:​​ ​a​ ​condition​ ​in​ ​which​ ​one​ ​or​ ​more​ ​houses​ ​of​ ​the​ ​legislature​ ​is controlled​ ​by​ ​the​ ​party​ ​in​ ​opposition​ ​to​ ​the​ ​executive 19. Gerrymandering:​​ ​the​ ​manipulation​ ​of​ ​legislative​ ​districts​ ​in​ ​an​ ​attempt​ ​to​ ​favor​ ​a particular​ ​candidate 20. majority​ ​party:​​ ​the​ ​legislative​ ​party​ ​with​ ​over​ ​half​ ​the​ ​seats​ ​in​ ​a​ ​legislative​ ​body,​ ​and​ ​thus significant​ ​power​ ​to​ ​control​ ​the​ ​agenda 21. minority​ ​party:​​ ​the​ ​legislative​ ​party​ ​with​ ​less​ ​than​ ​half​ ​the​ ​seats​ ​in​ ​a​ ​legislative​ ​body 22. Reapportionment:​​ ​the​ ​reallocation​ ​of​ ​House​ ​seats​ ​between​ ​the​ ​states​ ​to​ ​account​ ​for population​ ​changes 23. Redistricting:​​ ​ ​the​ ​redrawing​ ​of​ ​electoral​ ​maps 24. safe​ ​seat:​​ ​a​ ​district​ ​drawn​ ​so​ ​members​ ​of​ ​a​ ​party​ ​can​ ​be​ ​assured​ ​of​ ​winning​ ​by​ ​a comfortable​ ​margin 25. Initiative:​​ ​law​ ​or​ ​constitutional​ ​amendment​ ​proposed​ ​and​ ​passed​ ​by​ ​the​ ​voters​ ​and​ ​subject to​ ​review​ ​by​ ​the​ ​state​ ​courts;​ ​also​ ​called​ ​a​ ​proposition 26. Recall:​​ ​the​ ​removal​ ​of​ ​a​ ​politician​ ​or​ ​government​ ​official​ ​by​ ​the​ ​voters 27. Referendum:​​ ​a​ ​yes​ ​or​ ​no​ ​vote​ ​by​ ​citizens​ ​on​ ​a​ ​law​ ​or​ ​candidate​ ​proposed​ ​by​ ​the​ ​state government 28. party​ ​organization:​​ ​the​ ​formal​ ​structure​ ​of​ ​the​ ​political​ ​party​ ​and​ ​the​ ​active​ ​members responsible​ ​for​ ​coordinating​ ​party​ ​behavior​ ​and​ ​supporting​ ​party​ ​candidates 29. party​ ​platform:​ ​the​ ​collection​ ​of​ ​a​ ​party’s​ ​positions​ ​on​ ​issues​ ​it​ ​considers​ ​politically important 30. party​ ​polarization:​​ ​the​ ​shift​ ​of​ ​party​ ​positions​ ​from​ ​moderate​ ​towards​ ​ideological extremes 31. party​ ​realignment:​​ ​a​ ​shifting​ ​of​ ​party​ ​alliances​ ​within​ ​the​ ​electorate 32. Party-in-government:​​ ​party​ ​identifiers​ ​who​ ​have​ ​been​ ​elected​ ​to​ ​office​ ​and​ ​are responsible​ ​for​ ​fulfilling​ ​the​ ​party’s​ ​promises 33. Party-in-the-electorate:​​ ​members​ ​of​ ​the​ ​voting​ ​public​ ​who​ ​consider​ ​themselves​ ​part​ ​of​ ​a political​ ​party​ ​or​ ​who​ ​consistently​ ​prefer​ ​the​ ​candidates​ ​of​ ​one​ ​party​ ​over​ ​the​ ​other 34. political​ ​machine:​​ ​an​ ​organization​ ​that​ ​secures​ ​votes​ ​for​ ​a​ ​party’s​ ​candidates​ ​or​ ​supports the​ ​party​ ​in​ ​other​ ​ways,​ ​usually​ ​in​ ​exchange​ ​for​ ​political​ ​favors​ ​such​ ​as​ ​a​ ​job​ ​in government 35. political​ ​party:​ ​Organizations ​made​ ​up​ ​of​ ​groups​ ​of​ ​people​ ​with​ ​similar​ ​interests​ ​that​ ​try to​ ​directly​ ​influence​ ​public​ ​policy​ ​through​ ​their​ ​members​ ​who​ ​seek​ ​and​ ​hold​ ​public​ ​office 36. Executive​ ​Office​ ​of​ ​the​ ​President:​ ​The​ ​administrative​ ​organization​ ​that​ ​reports​ ​directly​ ​to the​ ​President​ ​and​ ​made​ ​up​ ​of​ ​important​ ​offices,​ ​units​ ​and​ ​staff​ ​of​ ​the​ ​current​ ​president and​ ​headed​ ​by​ ​the​ ​White​ ​House​ ​chief​ ​of​ ​staff 37. executive​ ​order:​ ​A​ ​ruler​ ​or​ ​order​ ​issued​ ​by​ ​the​ ​President​ ​without​ ​the​ ​cooperation​ ​of Congress​ ​and​ ​having​ ​the​ ​force​ ​of​ ​law 38. Precinct:​ ​The​ ​lowest​ ​level​ ​of​ ​party​ ​organization,​ ​usually​ ​organized​ ​around​ ​neighborhoods 39. Sorting:​ ​The​ ​process​ ​in​ ​which​ ​voters​ ​change​ ​party​ ​allegiances​ ​in​ ​response​ ​to​ ​shifts​ ​in party​ ​position 40. third​ ​parties:​ ​Political​ ​parties​ ​formed​ ​as​ ​an​ ​alternative​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Republican​ ​and​ ​Democratic parties,​ ​minor​ ​parties 41. ballot​ ​fatigue:​ ​The​ ​result​ ​when​ ​a​ ​voter​ ​stops​ ​voting​ ​for​ ​offices​ ​and​ ​initiatives​ ​at​ ​the bottom​ ​of​ ​a​ ​long​ ​ballot 42. early​ ​voting:​ ​An​ ​accommodation​ ​that​ ​allows​ ​voting​ ​up​ ​to​ ​two​ ​weeks​ ​before​ ​Election​ ​Day 43. residency​ ​requirement:​ ​the​ ​stipulation​ ​that​ ​citizen​ ​must​ ​live​ ​in​ ​a​ ​state​ ​for​ ​a​ ​determined period​ ​of​ ​time​ ​before​ ​a​ ​citizen​ ​can​ ​register​ ​to​ ​vote​ ​as​ ​a​ ​resident​ ​of​ ​that​ ​state 44. straight-ticket​ ​voting:​ ​The​ ​practice​ ​of​ ​voting​ ​only​ ​for​ ​candidates​ ​from​ ​the​ ​same​ ​party 45. voter​ ​fatigue:​ ​The​ ​result​ ​when​ ​voters​ ​grow​ ​tired​ ​of​ ​voting​ ​and​ ​stay​ ​home​ ​from​ ​the​ ​polls 46. mandatory​ ​voting:​​ ​People​ ​are​ ​required​ ​to​ ​vote 47. Electoral​ ​College:​ ​The​ ​constitutionally​ ​created​ ​group​ ​of​ ​individuals,​ ​chosen​ ​by​ ​the​ ​states, with​ ​the​ ​responsibility​ ​of​ ​formally​ ​selecting​ ​the​ ​next​ ​U.S.​ ​President 48. US​ ​Census: 49. establishment​ ​clause:​​ ​the​ ​provision​ ​of​ ​the​ ​First​ ​Amendment​ ​that​ ​prohibits​ ​the​ ​government from​ ​endorsing​ ​a​ ​state-sponsored​ ​religion;​ ​interpreted​ ​as​ ​preventing​ ​government​ ​from favoring​ ​some​ ​religious​ ​beliefs​ ​over​ ​others​ ​or​ ​religion​ ​over​ ​non-religion 50. free​ ​exercise​ ​clause:​​ ​the​ ​provision​ ​of​ ​the​ ​First​ ​Amendment​ ​that​ ​prohibits​ ​the​ ​government from​ ​regulating​ ​religious​ ​beliefs​ ​and​ ​practices 51. Obscenity:​​ ​acts​ ​or​ ​statements​ ​that​ ​are​ ​extremely​ ​offensive​ ​by​ ​contemporary​ ​standards 52. prior​ ​restraint:​​ ​a​ ​government​ ​action​ ​that​ ​stops​ ​someone​ ​from​ ​doing​ ​something​ ​before​ ​they are​ ​able​ ​to​ ​do​ ​it 53. Lemon​ ​test: 54. Slander:​​ ​spoken​ ​information​ ​about​ ​a​ ​person​ ​or​ ​organization​ ​that​ ​is​ ​not​ ​true​ ​and​ ​harms​ ​the reputation​ ​of​ ​the​ ​person​ ​or​ ​organization 55. Libel:​ ​Printed​ ​information​ ​about​ ​a​ ​person​ ​or​ ​organization​ ​that​ ​is​ ​not​ ​true​ ​and​ ​harms​ ​the reputation​ ​of​ ​the​ ​person​ ​or​ ​organization 56. double​ ​jeopardy:​​ ​a​ ​prosecution​ ​pursued​ ​twice​ ​at​ ​the​ ​same​ ​level​ ​of​ ​government​ ​for​ ​the same​ ​criminal​ ​action 57. due​ ​process​ ​clause:​​ ​provisions​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Fifth​ ​and​ ​Fourteenth​ ​Amendments​ ​that​ ​limit government​ ​power​ ​to​ ​deny​ ​people​ ​“life,​ ​liberty,​ ​or​ ​property”​ ​on​ ​an​ ​unfair​ ​basis 58. eminent​ ​domain:​​ ​the​ ​power​ ​of​ ​government​ ​to​ ​take​ ​or​ ​use​ ​property​ ​for​ ​a​ ​public​ ​purpose after​ ​compensating​ ​its​ ​owner;​ ​also​ ​known​ ​as​ ​the​ ​takings​ ​clause​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Fifth​ ​Amendment 59. exclusionary​ ​rule:​​ ​a​ ​requirement,​ ​from​ ​Supreme​ ​Court​ ​case​ ​Mapp​ ​v.​ ​Ohio​,​ ​that​ ​evidence obtained​ ​as​ ​a​ ​result​ ​of​ ​an​ ​illegal​ ​search​ ​or​ ​seizure​ ​cannot​ ​be​ ​used​ ​to​ ​try​ ​someone​ ​for​ ​a crime 60. Miranda​ ​warning:​​ ​a​ ​statement​ ​by​ ​law​ ​enforcement​ ​officers​ ​informing​ ​a​ ​person​ ​arrested​ ​or subject​ ​to​ ​interrogation​ ​of​ ​his​ ​or​ ​her​ ​rights 61. Patriot​ ​Act:​​ ​a​ ​law​ ​passed​ ​by​ ​Congress​ ​in​ ​the​ ​wake​ ​of​ ​the​ ​9/11​ ​attacks​ ​that​ ​broadened federal​ ​powers​ ​to​ ​monitor​ ​electronic​ ​communications;​ ​the​ ​full​ ​name​ ​is​ ​the​ ​USA​ ​PATRIOT Act​ ​(Uniting​ ​and​ ​Strengthening​ ​America​ ​by​ ​Providing​ ​Appropriate​ ​Tools​ ​Required​ ​to Intercept​ ​and​ ​Obstruct​ ​Terrorism​ ​Act) 62. plea​ ​bargain:​​ ​an​ ​agreement​ ​between​ ​the​ ​defendant​ ​and​ ​the​ ​prosecutor​ ​in​ ​which​ ​the defendant​ ​pleads​ ​guilty​ ​to​ ​the​ ​charge(s)​ ​in​ ​question​ ​or​ ​perhaps​ ​to​ ​less​ ​serious​ ​charges,​ ​in exchange​ ​for​ ​more​ ​lenient​ ​punishment​ ​than​ ​if​ ​convicted​ ​after​ ​a​ ​full​ ​trial 63. probable​ ​cause:​​ ​legal​ ​standard​ ​for​ ​determining​ ​whether​ ​a​ ​search​ ​or​ ​seizure​ ​is​ ​constitutional or​ ​a​ ​crime​ ​has​ ​been​ ​committed;​ ​a​ ​lower​ ​threshold​ ​than​ ​the​ ​standard​ ​of​ ​proof​ ​needed​ ​at​ ​a criminal​ ​trial 64. right​ ​to​ ​privacy:​​ ​the​ ​right​ ​to​ ​be​ ​free​ ​of​ ​government​ ​intrusion 65. search​ ​warrant:​ ​a​ ​legal​ ​document,​ ​signed​ ​by​ ​a​ ​judge,​ ​allowing​ ​police​ ​to​ ​search​ ​and/or​ ​seize persons​ ​or​ ​property 66. Self-incrimination:​​ ​an​ ​action​ ​or​ ​statement​ ​that​ ​admits​ ​guilt​ ​or​ ​responsibility​ ​for​ ​a​ ​crime 67. checks​ ​and​ ​balances:​​ ​a​ ​system​ ​that​ ​allows​ ​one​ ​branch​ ​of​ ​government​ ​to​ ​limit​ ​the​ ​exercise of​ ​power​ ​by​ ​another​ ​branch;​ ​requires​ ​the​ ​different​ ​parts​ ​of​ ​government​ ​to​ ​work​ ​together 68. Federalism:​ ​An​ ​institutional​ ​arrangement​ ​that​ ​creates​ ​two​ ​relatively​ ​autonomous​ ​levels​ ​of government,​ ​each​ ​possessing​ ​the​ ​capacity​ ​to​ ​act​ ​directly​ ​on​ ​the​ ​people​ ​with​ ​authority granted​ ​by​ ​the​ ​national​ ​constitution 69. separation​ ​of​ ​powers:​​ ​the​ ​sharing​ ​of​ ​powers​ ​among​ ​three​ ​separate​ ​branches​ ​of​ ​government 70. judicial​ ​review:​ ​The​ ​power​ ​of​ ​the​ ​courts​ ​to​ ​review​ ​actions​ ​taken​ ​by​ ​the​ ​other​ ​branches​ ​of government​ ​and​ ​the​ ​states​ ​and​ ​to​ ​rule​ ​on​ ​whether​ ​those​ ​actions​ ​are​ ​constitutional 71. limited​ ​government: 72. popular​ ​sovereignty: 73. Congressional​ ​Budget​ ​Office:​​ ​the​ ​congressional​ ​office​ ​that​ ​scores​ ​the​ ​spending​ ​or​ ​revenue impact​ ​of​ ​all​ ​proposed​ ​legislation​ ​to​ ​assess​ ​its​ ​net​ ​effect​ ​on​ ​the​ ​budget 74. executive​ ​privilege:​ ​The​ ​President’s​ ​right​ ​withhold​ ​information​ ​from​ ​Congress,​ ​the judiciary,​ ​or​ ​the​ ​public 75. Impeachment:​ ​The​ ​act​ ​of​ ​charging​ ​a​ ​government​ ​official​ ​with​ ​serious​ ​wrongdoing,​ ​which in​ ​some​ ​cases​ ​may​ ​lead​ ​to​ ​the​ ​removal​ ​of​ ​that​ ​official​ ​from​ ​office 76. line-item​ ​veto:​​ ​a​ ​power​ ​created​ ​through​ ​law​ ​in​ ​1996​ ​and​ ​overturned​ ​by​ ​the​ ​Supreme​ ​Court in​ ​1998​ ​that​ ​allowed​ ​the​ ​president​ ​to​ ​veto​ ​specific​ ​aspects​ ​of​ ​bills​ ​passed​ ​by​ ​Congress while​ ​signing​ ​into​ ​law​ ​what​ ​remained 77. Debt:​​ ​the​ ​total​ ​amount​ ​the​ ​government​ ​owes​ ​across​ ​all​ ​years 78. Deficit:​​ ​the​ ​annual​ ​amount​ ​by​ ​which​ ​expenditures​ ​are​ ​greater​ ​than​ ​revenues 79. discretionary​ ​spending:​​ ​government​ ​spending​ ​that​ ​Congress​ ​must​ ​pass​ ​legislation​ ​to authorize​ ​each​ ​year 80. Entitlement:​ ​A​ ​program​ ​that​ ​guarantees​ ​benefits​ ​to​ ​members​ ​of​ ​a​ ​specific​ ​group​ ​or segment​ ​of​ ​the​ ​population 81. excise​ ​taxes:​​ ​taxes​ ​applied​ ​to​ ​specific​ ​goods​ ​or​ ​services​ ​as​ ​a​ ​source​ ​of​ ​revenue 82. mandatory​ ​spending:​​ ​government​ ​spending​ ​earmarked​ ​for​ ​entitlement​ ​programs guaranteeing​ ​support​ ​to​ ​those​ ​who​ ​meet​ ​certain​ ​qualifications 83. progressive​ ​tax:​​ ​a​ ​tax​ ​that​ ​tends​ ​to​ ​increase​ ​the​ ​effective​ ​tax​ ​rate​ ​as​ ​the​ ​wealth​ ​or​ ​income of​ ​the​ ​tax​ ​payer​ ​increases 84. Recession:​​ ​a​ ​temporary​ ​contraction​ ​of​ ​the​ ​economy​ ​in​ ​which​ ​there​ ​is​ ​no​ ​economic​ ​growth for​ ​two​ ​consecutive​ ​quarters 85. regressive​ ​tax:​​ ​a​ ​tax​ ​applied​ ​at​ ​a​ ​lower​ ​overall​ ​rate​ ​as​ ​individuals’​ ​income​ ​rises 86. Social​ ​Security:​ ​A​ ​social​ ​welfare​ ​policy​ ​for​ ​people​ ​who​ ​no​ ​longer​ receive​ ​an​ ​income​ ​from employment 87. Containment:​​ ​the​ ​effort​ ​by​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States​ ​and​ ​Western​ ​European​ ​allies,​ ​begun​ ​during the​ ​Cold​ ​War,​ ​to​ ​prevent​ ​the​ ​spread​ ​of​ ​communism 88. Isolationism:​​ ​a​ ​foreign​ ​policy​ ​approach​ ​that​ ​advocates​ ​a​ ​nation’s​ ​staying​ ​out​ ​of​ ​foreign entanglements​ ​and​ ​keeping​ ​to​ ​itself 89. liberal​ ​internationalism:​​ ​a​ ​foreign​ ​policy​ ​approach​ ​of​ ​becoming​ ​proactively​ ​engaged​ ​in world​ ​affairs​ ​by​ ​cooperating​ ​in​ ​a​ ​community​ ​of​ ​nations 90. Neo-isolationism:​​ ​a​ ​policy​ ​of​ ​distancing​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States​ ​from​ ​the​ ​United​ ​Nations​ ​and other​ ​international​ ​organizations,​ ​while​ ​still​ ​participating​ ​in​ ​the​ ​world​ ​economy 91. Neoconservatism:​​ ​the​ ​belief​ ​that,​ ​rather​ ​than​ ​exercising​ ​restraint,​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States​ ​should aggressively​ ​use​ ​its​ ​might​ ​to​ ​promote​ ​its​ ​values​ ​and​ ​ideals​ ​around​ ​the​ ​world 92. Protectionism:​​ ​a​ ​policy​ ​in​ ​which​ ​a​ ​country​ ​does​ ​not​ ​permit​ ​other​ ​countries​ ​to​ ​sell​ ​goods and​ ​services​ ​within​ ​its​ ​borders​ ​or​ ​charges​ ​them​ ​very​ ​high​ ​tariffs​ ​(import​ ​taxes)​ ​to​ ​do​ ​so 93. selective​ ​engagement:​​ ​a​ ​policy​ ​of​ ​retaining​ ​a​ ​strong​ ​military​ ​presence​ ​and​ ​remaining engaged​ ​across​ ​the​ ​world 94. foreign​ ​policy:​​ ​a​ ​government’s​ ​goals​ ​in​ ​dealing​ ​with​ ​other​ ​countries​ ​or​ ​regions​ ​and​ ​the strategy​ ​used​ ​to​ ​achieve​ ​them 95. free​ ​trade:​​ ​a​ ​policy​ ​in​ ​which​ ​a​ ​country​ ​allows​ ​the​ ​unfettered​ ​flow​ ​of​ ​goods​ ​and​ ​services between​ ​itself​ ​and​ ​other​ ​countries 96. balance​ ​of​ ​trade:​​ ​the​ ​relationship​ ​between​ ​a​ ​country’s​ ​inflow​ ​and​ ​outflow​ ​of​ ​goods 97. appellate​ ​jurisdiction:​​ ​the​ ​power​ ​of​ ​a​ ​court​ ​to​ ​hear​ ​a​ ​case​ ​on​ ​appeal​ ​from​ ​a​ ​lower​ ​court​ ​and possibly​ ​change​ ​the​ ​lower​ ​court’s​ ​decision 98. civil​ ​law:​​ ​a​ ​non-criminal​ ​law​ ​defining​ ​private​ ​rights​ ​and​ ​remedies 99. common​ ​law:​​ ​the​ ​pattern​ ​of​ ​law​ ​developed​ ​by​ ​judges​ ​through​ ​case​ ​decisions​ ​largely​ ​based on​ ​precedent 100. 101. criminal​ ​law: judicial​ ​activism:​​ ​a​ ​judicial​ ​philosophy​ ​in​ ​which​ ​a​ ​justice​ ​is​ ​more​ ​likely​ ​to​ ​overturn decisions​ ​or​ ​rule​ ​actions​ ​by​ ​the​ ​other​ ​branches​ ​unconstitutional,​ ​especially​ ​in​ ​an​ ​attempt​ ​to broaden​ ​individual​ ​rights​ ​and​ ​liberties 102. judicial​ ​restraint:​​ ​a​ ​judicial​ ​philosophy​ ​in​ ​which​ ​a​ ​justice​ ​is​ ​more​ ​likely​ ​to​ ​let​ ​stand​ ​the decisions​ ​or​ ​actions​ ​of​ ​the​ ​other​ ​branches​ ​of​ ​government 103. judicial​ ​review:​​ ​the​ ​power​ ​of​ ​the​ ​courts​ ​to​ ​review​ ​actions​ ​taken​ ​by​ ​the​ ​other​ ​branches of​ ​government​ ​and​ ​the​ ​states​ ​and​ ​to​ ​rule​ ​on​ ​whether​ ​those​ ​actions​ ​are​ ​constitutional 104. 105. 106. Marbury​ ​v.​ ​Madison:​ ​Establishes​ ​the​ ​concept​ ​of​ ​judicial​ ​review original​ ​jurisdiction:​​ ​the​ ​power​ ​of​ ​a​ ​court​ ​to​ ​hear​ ​a​ ​case​ ​for​ ​the​ ​first​ ​time Precedent:​​ ​the​ ​principles​ ​or​ ​guidelines​ ​established​ ​by​ ​courts​ ​in​ ​earlier​ ​cases​ ​that​ ​frame the​ ​ongoing​ ​operation​ ​of​ ​the​ ​courts,​ ​steering​ ​the​ ​direction​ ​of​ ​the​ ​entire​ ​system 107. stare​ ​decisis:​​ ​the​ ​principle​ ​by​ ​which​ ​courts​ ​rely​ ​on​ ​past​ ​decisions​ ​and​ ​their​ ​precedents when​ ​making​ ​decisions​ ​in​ ​new​ ​cases 108. Anti-Federalists:​​ ​those​ ​who​ ​did​ ​not​ ​support​ ​ratification​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Constitution 109. Federalists:​​ ​those​ ​who​ ​supported​ ​ratification​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Constitution 110. Connecticut/Great​ ​Compromise:​ ​A​ ​compromise​ ​between​ ​the​ ​Virginia​ ​Plan​ ​and​ ​the New​ ​Jersey​ ​Plan​ ​that​ ​created​ ​a​ ​two-house​ ​Congress;​ ​representation​ ​based​ ​on​ ​population in​ ​the​ ​House​ ​of​ ​Reps.​ ​and​ ​equal​ ​representation​ ​of​ ​states​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Senate 111. New​ ​Jersey​ ​Plan:​ ​A​ ​plan​ ​that​ ​called​ ​for​ ​a​ ​one-house​ ​national​ ​legislature;​ ​each​ ​state would​ ​receive​ ​one​ ​vote 112. The​ ​Federalist​ ​Papers:​​ ​a​ ​collection​ ​of​ ​eighty-five​ ​essays​ ​written​ ​by​ ​Alexander​ ​Hamilton, James​ ​Madison,​ ​and​ ​John​ ​Jay​ ​in​ ​support​ ​of​ ​ratification​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Constitution 113. 114. 3/5​ ​Compromise:​​ ​An​ ​African​ ​person​ ​only​ ​counted​ ​as​ ​⅗​ ​of​ ​a​ ​white​ ​person​ ​when​ ​voting Virginia​ ​Plan:​​ ​a​ ​plan​ ​for​ ​a​ ​two-house​ ​legislature;​ ​representatives​ ​would​ ​be​ ​elected​ ​to the​ ​lower​ ​house​ ​based​ ​on​ ​each​ ​state’s​ ​population;​ ​representatives​ ​for​ ​the​ ​upper​ ​house would​ ​be​ ​chosen​ ​by​ ​the​ ​lower​ ​house 115. Cabinet:​​ ​a​ ​group​ ​of​ ​advisors​ ​to​ ​the​ ​president,​ ​consisting​ ​of​ ​the​ ​most​ ​senior​ ​appointed officers​ ​of​ ​the​ ​executive​ ​branch​ ​who​ ​head​ ​the​ ​fifteen​ ​executive​ ​departments ...
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