CS 320 Unit 2 Basic Concepts

CS 320 Unit 2 Basic Concepts - CS 320 Computer Architecture...

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Unformatted text preview: CS 320 Computer Architecture Spring 2008 Unit 2 Basic Concepts Furman Haddix, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Minnesota State University, Mankato Unit 2 – Basic Concepts – Objectives Computer Organization and Architecture • Machine Language • Generations of Computers • Processor Organization • Processor Design Principles • Data Path • Memory Interface to CPU • Control Unit • Microprogram Control of Processing • Tanenbaum, Chapter 1 Machine Language Machine Language is the Language of the Machine • A Computer Architecture is defined by its language, an architecture-specific machine language • A family of architectures is a series of architectures sharing many characteristics, e.g., 80x86 • A make of computer is determined by the manufacturer, e.g., Intel • A manufacturer has many computer models, e.g., Celeron, Pentium, Xeon • All of the makes and models of the same architecture use the same machine language. • Using the same machine language is known as binary compatability • A more evocative name for machine language, or computer architecture, is Instruction Set Architecture, which also includes the set of registers accessible at the architecture level. Machine Language • Simply, Machine Language is the Language of the Machine • A Computer Architecture is defined by its language, an architecture- specific machine language • Example: IA-32 is an architecture shared by many processors of Intel, including, 80386, Pentium, Celeron, and Xeon. • A family of architectures is a series of architectures sharing characteristics. In the 80_86 family, the shared characteristic is backwards capatability between the 8088, 8086, 80286, and IA-32 architectures. • A make of computer is determined by the manufacturer, e.g., Dell, HP, Apple, Sun, (IBM). For example, Dell uses Intel chips. HP uses Intel chips in some of its processors. • Dell has many computer models, for example, LATITUDE XXXX, INSPIRON XXXX, etc. • The majority of current PCs use IA-32 chips, although there are many other architectures available, some of which are technologically superior. However, all of the IA-32 chip using processors arguably use the same architecture. • Note that adding a new assembly language instruction doesn’t modify the architecture, only the assembler, as long as the machine language is not modified. • A more evocative name for machine language, or computer architecture, is Instruction Set Architecture, which also includes the set of registers accessible at the architecture level . Assembly Language • Assembly language and machine language. • Translation of assembly language. • System calls • Macroinstructions or pseudoinstructions....
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This note was uploaded on 06/09/2008 for the course CS 310 taught by Professor Furmanhaddix during the Spring '08 term at Minnesota State University, Mankato.

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CS 320 Unit 2 Basic Concepts - CS 320 Computer Architecture...

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