ENGRI111_004 - n=3 (s,p,d) n=4 (s,p,d,f) E Energy Ladder...

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    Nanotechnology: Electronics -III
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    Junction Transistor
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    p-n-p junction transistor + + + + + + + + - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + - - Emitter Base Collector Forward Bias Reverse Bias
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    n-p-n junction transistor www.wikipedia.com
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    Input-Output Voltage
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    Transistors MOSFET Source Drain Gate Junction Transistor Two p-n junctions back to back Emitter-base-collector Emitter-base forward biased Base-collector reverse biased
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    Electrons in Atoms Rutherford – Classical model “solar system” Bohr – electrons restricted to specific orbits Energies are quantized Heisenberg – smearing (orbitals) Pauli – each orbital occupied by two electrons
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    Electrons in Atoms Electronic orbitals come in families of shells Shells: 1, 2, 3 Orbitals: s, p, d, f… (subshells) Lowest orbitals are filled first Only two electrons can occupy same orbital Atoms combine with each other by  Sharing Donating acquiring
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    Electrons in Atoms n=1 (s) n=2 (s,p)
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Unformatted text preview: n=3 (s,p,d) n=4 (s,p,d,f) E Energy Ladder Levels Gaps Levels get closer Energy required to move between levels Electrons in Atoms Quantized Energy Levels From Atoms to Solids http://www.physics.udel.edu/~watson Energy Conversions 1 cal = 2.6x10 19 eV Electrical energy For typical wiring: 120V correspond to 10-7 eV Thermal Energy (Average energy) At Room Temperature ~ 0.03 eV At 2000 C ~ 0.2 eV Energy difference between states in a band ~ 10-23 eV Conductor or Insulator? http://www.physics.udel.edu/~watson Ne: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Na: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 Metals-Insulators-Semiconductors http://www.physics.udel.edu/~watson Pure Si Free Electrons Holes 1.1 eV Band Gap Valence Band Conduction Band n-type Si http://www.physics.udel.edu/~watson p-type Si http://www.physics.udel.edu/~watson...
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ENGRI111_004 - n=3 (s,p,d) n=4 (s,p,d,f) E Energy Ladder...

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