BILD 3 Chapter 23

BILD 3 Chapter 23 - Chapter 23: The Evolution of...

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Chapter 23: The Evolution of Populations: Microevolution: Evolution on its smallest scale; change in the genetic makeup of a population from generation to generation. Population Genetics: The study of how populations change genetically over time. Modern Synthesis: A comprehensive theory of evolution that integrated ideas from any other fields. Population: A localized group of individuals that is capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. Gene Pool: The aggregate of genes in a population at any one time. It consists of all alleles at all gene loci in all individuals of the population. Hardy-Weinberg Theorem: States that the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population’s gene pool remain constant from generation to generation, provided that only Mendelian segregation and recombination of alleles are at work. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium: The condition describing a non-evolving population (one that is in genetic equilibrium). Mutations: Changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Genetic Drift: Unpredictable fluctuations in allele frequencies from one generation to the next because of a population’s finite size. Bottleneck Effect: Genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, typically by a natural disaster, such that the surviving population no longer genetically representative of the original population. Founder Effect: Genetic drift that occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population, with the result that the new population’s gene pool is not reflective of the original population. Gene Flow: Genetic additions to and/or subtractions from a population resulting from the movement of fertile individuals or gametes. Phenotypic Polymorphism: When two or more distinct morphs are reach represented in high enough frequencies to be readily noticeable. Genetic Polymorphism: The existence of two or more distinct alleles at a given locus in a
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BILD 3 Chapter 23 - Chapter 23: The Evolution of...

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