BILD 3 Chapter 25

BILD 3 Chapter 25 - Chapter 25: Phylogeny and Systematics...

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Chapter 25: Phylogeny and Systematics Phylogeny: The evolutionary history of a species or group of species. In constructing phylogenies, biologists draw on the fossil record, which provides information about ancient organisms. Systematics: An analytical approach to understanding the diversity and relationships of organisms, both present-day and extinct. Systematists have traditionally studies morphological and biochemical resemblances among organisms as a basis for inferring evolutionary relationships. Molecular Systematics: Uses comparisons of DNA, RNA, and other molecules to infer evolutionary relationships between individual genes and even between entire genomes. Fossil Record: Based on the sequence in which fossils have accumulated in strata. Analogy: Similarity between two species that is due to convergent evolution rather than to descent from a common ancestor with the same trait. Homoplasies: Analogous structures that have evolved independently. Taxonomy: An ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities and differences. Binomial: The two party format of the scientific name; instituted by Linnaeus. Genus: First part of a species’ name to which the species belongs. Specific Epithet: Second party of a species’ name which is unique for each species within the genus. Taxon: The named taxonomic unit at any level. Related genera are placed into the same
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BILD 3 Chapter 25 - Chapter 25: Phylogeny and Systematics...

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