Final Review Sheet - Social Disorganization and Cultural...

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Social Disorganization and Cultural Transmission (Shaw and McKay) Learning Objectives 1. Be able to distinguish theories by levels of explanation. 2. Understand how cities grow according to Burgess and the Human Ecology School 3. Know how delinquency is spatially distributed in cities. 4. Understand the four important empirical facts Shaw and McKay wanted to explain. 5. Understand how social disorganization and cultural transmission explained the above facts. 6. Understand the policy implications of Shaw and McKay’s theory. Chicago School of Human Ecology Spatial Distribution of Delinquency in the City (Shaw & McKay) - High in Zone in Transition (Interstitial Areas) - Drops in Peripheral Neighborhoods (further away from center) - Remained High Despite Turnover of Ethnic Groups - Ethnic Groups Who Moved to Periphery Experienced Low Rates Social Disorganization Defined Social Disorganization: Inability of a community to solve its problems collectively (or achieve collective values) Characteristics - Population loss - High Proportion rentals vs. low home owners - Low Income - High Physical deterioration - High Percentage nonwhite - Weak and unlinked institutions; no sense of community - Family structure, schools, community groups Example of how Social Disorganization Affects crime - Social disorganization produces loss of informal social control - Loss of Parental supervision, community controls - Formation of spontaneous play groups of children - Becomes the vehicle for delinquency Cultural Transmission - Delinquent tradition transmitted across generations of youth groups - Older gangs transmit delinquency to younger play groups - Delinquent tradition: values, pressures, and sanctions - Transmission: learning a culture - Delinquent traditions produce persistently high delinquency rates in a community or neighborhood Policy Implications: Chicago Area Projects - Help inner city residents prevent delinquency
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- Develop a sense of community - Increase community participation - Strengthen institutions (families, schools, churches, community groups) - Foster ties between institutions - Increase controls over children - Principle: Community empowerment using “natural leaders” - Target: Develop recreation programs - Evaluation: Not definitive Social Capital and Collective Efficacy Learning Objectives 1. Understand social capital theory 2. Link social capital theory to collective efficacy 3. Know the broken windows thesis 4. Know results of empirical research on collective efficacy and broken windows 5. Understand how Patillo-McCoy and Venkatesh provide examples of appropriation of social capital to facilitate crime Social Capital Theory - Begin with Utility Maximization Theory - Financial capital - Human capital - Social capital - Social Capital: - Inheres in social structure (network ties) - Closure of social networks - Example: parents of other children - Facilitates certain social actions by actors Social Capital: Types and Appropriation - Types of Social Capital - Obligations, expectations, trust
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Final Review Sheet - Social Disorganization and Cultural...

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