351001 - Learning and Behavior Psychology 351 Thomas G...

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Unformatted text preview: 8/28/08 Learning and Behavior Psychology 351 Thomas G. Brown, Ph.D. Learning   Difficult   Where to define is it - what is it   Represents a process by which an organism’s behavior is changed   Not all changes result from learning   Fatigue, drug states, maturation   Matter of excluding what isn’t learning A Definition   Learning is a theoretical construct represented by (or inferred from) a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience   Eliminates temporary changes - like fatigue   Eliminates long lasting changes not due to experience - like maturation   Whatever is left is learning   Maybe - we’ll return to this 1 8/28/08 Historical Background   Mind-body   René distinction Descartes, 1596-1650   Physical body Mind – Mechanistic – Animal-like – Involuntary   Gave --Spiritual --Voluntary --Free rise to a growing concern about the internal dimensions of human existence Questions   What   How is mind do you measure and understand mental sensations and ideas which exist without physical form   One answer offered by Fechner Gustav Fechner   1801-1887   Attempted to ,measure mental sensations in terms of their physical antecedents   Loudness (psychological) measured or scaled in terms of sound energy (physical)   Psychophysics - psychophysical scaling 2 8/28/08 Science   Psychology becomes the science of consciousness   Wundt   Titchener   Mixed success   Dramatic revolution John B. Watson   Behaviorism   Simple claim   Consciousness was internal and unobservable - not accessible to objective scientific inquiry   Subject matter of psychology should be overt behavior - observable and measurable   Psychology became objective and deterministic Specific Historical Antecedents   Associationists   Evolutionary Theory   Social Climate 3 8/28/08 Associationists   Aristotle   John   No Locke, 1632-1704 (few) innate ideas   Tabula rasa   Empiricists   Law of Contiguity Evolutionary Theory   Charles   Natural Darwin, 1809-1882 selection - 1859   Adaptive behavior   Continuum of life – Hierarchy of species Social Climate   In the United States – Land of opportunity – Education   In Russia – Post-revolution – Overthrow of class structure   Edward L. Thorndike & Ivan P. Pavlov 4 8/28/08 Four Pillars   Determinism – Not willy-nilly world   Empiricism – Look and see – Skepticism - “in your own lab”   Parsimony – K.I.S.,S.   Scientific Manipulation – Search for cause and effect Psychology of Learning Today   Has   But evolved behavior is very complex   As with most sciences, study a limited system – Simple responses   History of apparatus – Simple organisms   Which   Has advantages and disadvantages Advantages and Disadvantages   Search for lawfulness and simplicity genetic make-up & previous history   External validity?   Simple and arbitrary subjects and behaviors   Control – Just a tool – Generalize-ability - general process – FI - inductive leaps   Biological boundaries 5 8/28/08 The Ultimate Wrinkle   Learning-Performance distinction – Not equivalent   Latent learning – Tolman and Honzik, 1930 The Ultimate Wrinkle Three Paradigms for Learning   Classical Conditioning – Ivan Pavlov – Reflexive   Operant conditioning – B.F. Skinner – Voluntary   Observational learning – Albert Bandura – Imitation 6 8/28/08 Classical Conditioning   Ivan   Salivating P. Pavlov dogs   Unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, conditioned response Operant Conditioning   B.F. Skinner controlled by   Law of Effect   Reinforcers - Punishers   SD R SR+   Behavior its consequences. Basic Terminology Ordinate Dependent Variable Abscissa Independent Variable 7 8/28/08 Basic Design   Group Design – Treatment Group – Control Group   Inferential Statistics – Hypothesis – Null hypothesis   Between subjects (groups) design   Within subjects design Within Subjects Design   Single (or few) subject – N of 1   Subject is his own control   Aggression example Schedule-Induced Attack #1 Number of Attacks #3 #2 0 15 30 60 120 240 Fixed-Interval Value (sec.) 480 8 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2008 for the course PSY 351 taught by Professor Brown during the Fall '08 term at Utica.

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