35101005 -   Simplest behaviors are reflexes elicited by...

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Unformatted text preview: 9/3/08   Simplest behaviors are reflexes elicited by simple stimuli   Looked at some more complex “elicited” behavior sequences - FAPs   Looked superficially at ethology (in general)   Tropisms   Jacques Loeb - 1900   Kineses - wood louse and moisture   Taxes   Simple - maggot and light   Complex - ant and solar navigation   Sherrington   Brain-less - so reflexes are “pure”   Threshold and latency   Flexors and tensors   Spinal reflexes   Dorsal roots   Ventral roots Rear Sensory Front Motor 1 9/3/08   Reflexes are involuntary, adaptive behavior.   Most learned behaviors involve a modification of these inherited response tendencies.   Reflexes can be modified by classical conditioning.   Single stimuli acting alone can produce relatively permanent non-associative effects - habituation and sensitization.   Simple stimuli can also elicit more complex unlearned sequences of behavior called Fixed (or Modal) Action Patterns.   Early experience with certain stimuli may also create essentially permanent changes in behavior through a process known as imprinting.   These processes are generally studied by a branch of biology known as ethology.   After decades of antagonism, ethologists and learning theorists have found much common ground in spite of their different emphases.   Habituation - conditioning term   Adaptation - physiological term   We are bombarded by stimuli             Clocks Watches Bracelets Clothing Blower Oceana NAS 2 9/3/08   Visual attention   Simple: gradual decrease   Complex: decrease after initial increase   Startle   Low: decline   High: rise   Habituation   Adaptation - Sensitization   Visual Attention   Startle   110-dB, 4000 Hz tone   60-dB or 80-dB background noise   Sensitization - readiness to respond   State system - only “arousing events”         Sleep Drugs Fatigue Emotions   Habituation - specific reaction   S-R system - every time   Both can occur at the same time   Greater has effect   Dual process 3 9/3/08   Visual   4 x 4: little arousal, just S-R   12 x 12: some arousal, overcome by S-R   Startle   60-dB: little arousal, just S-R   80-dB: much arousal   (x100)   Sensitization   Dissipates relatively quickly   Determined by intensity   Larger and longer   Habituation   Short term - like Sensitization   Long term - Oceana   Difficult to explain with any theory   Habituation   Always specific - clock   Some generalization if highly similar   Sensitization   Not usually specific   Strong extraneous stimuli   Dishabituation   Recovery of a previously habituated stimulus 4 9/3/08   Solomon   Standard Pattern of Affective Dynamics Peak of Primary +100 Affective Reaction Adaptation Hedonic Scale Steady State 0 Decay Peak of Affective After-Reaction +100 Stimulus Event On   Homeostasis   Primary (or “a”) process   Opponent (or “b”) process   Primary process habituates   Opponent process sensitizes   Drugs   Tolerance   Love and attachment 5 ...
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