35101009

35101009 - 9/14/08 Learning and Behavior Psychology 351...

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Unformatted text preview: 9/14/08 Learning and Behavior Psychology 351 Thomas G. Brown, Ph.D. Last Class   Classical   Factors   Control conditioning groups   Inhibition Lubow (1965)   Goats   Patch and sheep of light as CS   No UCS (shock) for 0, 20, or 40 trials, then UCS 80 0 20 Percent of Trials With a CR 0 1 2 3 Sessions 4 40 1 9/14/08 Inhibition of Delay   Kimmel (1965) –  CS: 7.5 second red light –  UCS: shock –  UCR/CR: GSR –  50 trials 4.2 Latency 2.5 Trials Disinhibition   Novel tone shortens latency 4.2 Latency 2.5 Trials Stimulus Generalization   Trained on 2000 Hz –  Tested on other frequencies 2 9/14/08 Experimental Neurosis CS+ CS- Special Cases   Sensory preconditioning conditioning   Interoceptive conditioning   Acquired Taste Aversion   Autoshaping   Conditioned Suppression   Semantic –  Conditioned Facilitation Sensory Preconditioning   Two neutral stimuli are paired –  One is used as a standard CS –  Then, other is substituted   Coppock (1958)   PC Group: 10 pairings of tone/light   Control Group: 10 presentations of tone and light but unpaired   IPC Group: 10 pairings of light/tone 3 9/14/08 Sensory Preconditioning PC Group Tone Light Tone Light 3 seconds 2 seconds 3 seconds 2 seconds 3 seconds 2 seconds Control Group Light IPC Group Tone Sensory Preconditioning   PC Group: 10 pairings of tone/light   Control Group: 10 presentations of tone and light but unpaired   IPC Group: 10 pairings of light/tone   Then, light paired with shock –  GSR as UCR/CR –  Present tone 5 times   PC   Control Group: substantial GSR change to tone (CR) and IPC: no CR Sensory Preconditioning   Demonstrates minimal conditions necessary for learning to occur   Question may have existed since Aristotle Tone Light 2 seconds Shock 3 seconds 4 9/14/08 Semantic Conditioning   Razran   Conditioning (1961) a CR to a verbal CS (word or sentence) irrespective of particular letters –  Conditioned to meaning   Subjects see items in 40 word list for 15 seconds each   Some (with “rural” connotation) repeated up to 6 times   Shock followed last presentation (unaware) Semantic Conditioning   Recorded heart rate on each trial new words with rural connotation   Heart rate increased   Unconscious anxiety reflex   Provides a framework for considering unconscious emotional reactions   Intellectual/conceptual life may be related to basic conditioning - words, symbols, etc.   Model of complex behavior on simple level   Presented Interoceptive Conditioning   Either CS and/or UCS is internal CS External Internal 1 –  Applied directly to visceral organs or other internal parts of body External UCS Internal So far 3 2 5 9/14/08 Interoceptive Conditioning   Highly significant for complex behavior stimuli leading to unconscious reactions   Psychosomatic illness   Widens generality of classical conditioning   Interoceptive Acquired Taste Aversion Series of studies by Garcia and others Rats drink a sweet solution, they are made sick, and later they’re averse to drinking a sweet solution   Reptiles, fish, birds, mice, rats, ferrets, coyotes, monkeys, apes, humans   CS: sweet, sour, bitter, salty, coffee, fruit juice, milk   UCS: ingested toxins, injected drugs, χ rays, γ rays, neutron bomb, blood from irradiated animals, motion sickness   Seligman (1970) - Sauce Béarnaise Phenomenon     –  Flavor-illness-nausea-aversion –  CS-UCS-UCR-CR, but long, long delay Acquired Taste Aversion   Calls into question Equivalence of Associability - all stimuli and all responses are equally associable   Garcia and Koelling (1966)   Varied UCS: shock or χ rays     Varied CS: taste, light, noise “Bright, noisy water” 6 9/14/08 Acquired Taste Aversion Taste Illness Shock Yes No Light No Yes Noise No Yes “Animals predisposed to avoid the flavors they experienced when their feet hurt probably would not last very long.”   Natural selection   Acquired Taste Aversion   Equivalence of Associability –  Equipotentiality –  All stimuli and all responses are equally associable –  Unbiased environments –  Simple and arbitrary –  Bait-shy behavior   Seligman   Gets the ball rolling –  Bolles (1970) - avoidance Autoshaping   Brown   Every and Jenkins (1968) so often the key light is illuminated red for 8 seconds. Immediately following the 8 seconds, access to food is delivered for 4 seconds.   The pigeons begin pecking - automatically.   In fact, if the peck prevents food delivery, they continue pecking.   Is this classical conditioning? Light-Food   Preparedness 7 9/14/08 Autoshaping   Automaintenance   Sign tracking –  6’ alley –  Light correlated with food & uncorrelated –  food in middle for 4 seconds   Localized   Not CS –  Diffuse (like tone) - no classical conditioning –  Later topic Conditioned Suppression   Operant   Tone responding for food followed by shock   Responding suppressed during tone   Conditioned Emotional Response Responses No responding Time Tone On Shock Conditioned Suppression   What if the tone is followed by lots of food? of responding   Conditioned Facilitation   Burst 8 9/14/08 More Complex Reflexes                         Stimulus Ingest toxin Salt loss Morphine Cedar pollen Antigens Genital stimulation Tissue damage Localized heat Strange food Strange human or animal Death of loved one Reflex Nausea, appetite loss, vomiting Aldosterone release, salt appetite Pupil dilation, warming Histamine release T-lymphocyte release Erection (m), vaginal lubrication (f) Pain, crying, clenching teeth Tissue damage, pain, blister Wariness, caution (neophobia) Wariness, caution (neophobia) Weeping, wailing, sadness, depression, fainting More Complex Reflexes                 Can they be conditioned? Various parts of immune system Temperature, reactivity, and pain (ANS) when drugs are UCS Drug tolerance Homeostatic mechanisms related to feeding Physiology relating to sickness and wellness Physiology relating to sexual functioning Components of both ANS and CNS relating to emotional responses: neurosis, learned helplessness, phobias, post -traumatic stress disorder, etc. More Complex Reflexes   Can   Blister they be conditioned? reflex –  Capillaries become increasingly permeable when heated (eliciting stimulus) –  Plasma loss produces localized edema (reflexive response)   Hypnotism   Replicated example in lab: Spanos and Chaves, 1989 9 9/14/08 Psychoneuroimmunology Interconnectedness of immune system, brain, mind, and behavior   Bill Moyer’s PBS series Healing and the Mind   Function of immune system is to resist toxins and infectious organisms that mightto damage to body   Acquired immunity   –  Antibodies and sensitized lymphocytes (wbc) destroy invaders Psychoneuroimmunology T-lymphocytes are integral Present at birth   Bind directly to membrane of invaders     –  Cancer cells or transplanted heart   Release lysomal enzymes –  Directly attack the cell’s integrity   Release macrophage chemotoxic factor –  Attracts other killer cells to the site Toxin or infectious organism is UCS   T-lymphocyte production/function is UCR   Psychoneuroimmunology     Ader, et al (1985) UCS - Cytoxan - rats –  Radiomimetic drug (cyclophosphamide) used routinely in chemotherapy to suppress immune system functioning lowers T-lymphocyte production CS - saccharin flavored water Control - random   1 trial per day, several days   Lower T-lymphocyte count relative to control     10 9/14/08 Psychoneuroimmunology   Conditioned immunosuppression –  Association between saccharin and components of immune system   Conditioned immunofacilitation - mice   UCS - Cytoxan   CS - water in distinctive environment –  Novel room with 80-dB music   CR - higher levels of antibodies Psychoneuroimmunology   Why   Conditioned   If difference - one up/one down compensatory response –  Like drug tolerance taste is CS, what about thoughts, words, beliefs, other cognitive stimuli   Placebo effects   Conditioned asthma 11 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2008 for the course PSY 351 taught by Professor Brown during the Fall '08 term at Utica.

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