35102021

35102021 - 10/14/08 Thomas G. Brown, Ph.D.   Theories of...

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Unformatted text preview: 10/14/08 Thomas G. Brown, Ph.D.   Theories of reinforcement –  Physiological – Olds and Milner –  Implant   Robust environments   Compound schedules –  Multiple Chain –  Mixed Tandem   Chain FR 10 FR 90   PRE –  Partial reinforcement effect   Concurrent   No schedules lab on Thursday –  FI is a two-weeker 1 10/14/08   Two or more schedules of reinforcement operating independently and each with its own correlated stimulus   Herrnstein (1961)   COD –  Change Over Delay   Matching 2 10/14/08     Herrnstein’s Experiment Matching Law—States that in two-choice situation, the percentage of responses directed toward one alternative will equal the percentage of reinforcers delivered by that alternative.   Relative Rate of Reinforcement –  Programmed vs. obtained –  Rfts in A / (Rfts in A + Rfts in B)   Relative   Relative   They Time Response Rate –  Time in A / (Time in A + Time in B) –  Responses in A / (Responses in A + Responses in B) match Rel Time Rel Rft 3 10/14/08 Undermatching Overmatching   Bias       Miller (1976) experiment: Choice between buckwheat, wheat and hemp   Findings—The predictions of the matching law equation was very close to the pigeons’ actual behaviors   Quality, amount, and rate of the reinforcement will influence choice 4 10/14/08 Conditions 1 2 3 4 Color of Main Key ______________________________ A B C Yellow Green Red VI 4 VI 4 VI 4 0.33 0.33 0.33 VI 2.4 VI 12 VI 4 0.55 0.11 0.33 VI 12 VI 2.4 VI 4 0.11 0.55 0.33 VI 1.5 EXT VI 12 0.88 0.00 0.11 Sessions 33 50 27 31 5 VI 15 0.09 6 7 8 9 VI 1.88 VI 6.67 0.71 0.20 VI 15 VI 6.67 VI 1.88 0.09 0.20 0.71 VI 1.33 EXT EXT 1.00 0.00 0.00 EXT VI 1.33 EXT 0.00 1.00 0.00 VI 4 VI 4 VI 4 0.33 0.33 0.33 46 50 32 34 42 Matching as an Explanatory Theory—A general principle that explains how animals make choices in all situations.   Melioration Theory—A theory which states that matching behavior in choice situations is the result of a process in which the individual invests increasing amounts of time and effort into whichever alternative delivers a higher ratio of reinforcers per response.   5 10/14/08   Optimization Theory—A theory of choice behavior that states that people tend to make decisions that maximize their satisfaction. Mazur (1981) experiment   Findings—The birds’ choices produced substantial decreases in the total rate of reinforcement, exactly the opposite of what optimization theory would predict.     Momentary Maximization Theory—At each moment, an organism will select whichever alternative has the highest value at that moment.   Vaughan’s Alternative Molecular Theory —This theory states that different choice responses are strengthened to different degrees by their short-term consequence 6 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2008 for the course PSY 351 taught by Professor Brown during the Spring '08 term at Utica.

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