Notes.pdf - Types Voice Types SATB Instruments grouped in...

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Unformatted text preview: Types Voice​ ​Types:​ ​SATB Instruments​ ​grouped​ ​in​ ​same​ ​way Early​ ​European​ ​music​ ​was​ ​only​ ​religious Instrument​ ​Types: Strings Violin,​ ​Viola,​ ​Cello,​ ​Bass,​ ​Guitar,​ ​Harp,​ ​Mandolin,​ ​Lute Woodwinds Clarinet,​ ​Oboe,​ ​English​ ​Horn,​ ​Bassoon,​ ​Contrabassoon,​ ​Flute,​ ​Piccolo, Saxophone Brass Trumpet,​ ​Cornet,​ ​Flugelhorn,​ ​French​ ​Horn,​ ​Trombone,​ ​Euphonium,​ ​Tuba Percussion Pitched Timpani,​ ​Marimba,​ ​Xylophone,​ ​Vibraphone,​ ​Glockenspiel,​ ​Tubular​ ​Bells Non-Pitched Snare​ ​Drum,​ ​Bass​ ​Drum,​ ​Crash​ ​Cymbal,​ ​Suspended​ ​Cymbal,​ ​Triangle, Maracas,​ ​Tambourine,​ ​Sleigh​ ​Bells,​ ​Bongos,​ ​Toms Keyboard Piano,​ ​Organ,​ ​Celeste,​ ​Harpsichord,​ ​Synthesizer Baritone​ ​Horn​ ​slightly​ ​smaller​ ​than​ ​Euphonium​ ​and​ ​bell​ ​faces​ ​forward Musical​ ​Notation Five​ ​lines,​ ​four​ ​spaces,​ ​treble​ ​clef,​ ​bass​ ​clef,​ ​sharp,​ ​flat,​ ​natural Tempo Grave,​ ​Adagio,​ ​Andante,​ ​Allegretto,​ ​Allegro,​ ​Presto,​ ​Prestissimo Dynamics Pianissimo,​ ​Piano,​ ​Mezzo​ ​Piano,​ ​Mezzo​ ​Forte,​ ​Forte,​ ​Fortissimo,​ ​Crescendo, Diminuendo Rhythm Heartbeat​ ​of​ ​music Scales/Tonality C​ ​Major​ ​Scale,​ ​Major/Minor Orchestra​ ​Layout Texture Monophonic,​ ​Homophonic,​ ​Polyphonic,​ ​Heterophonic Medieval:​ ​450​ ​-​ ​1450​ ​AD 455​ ​-​ ​Sack​ ​of​ ​Rome​ ​by​ ​Vandals 590​ ​-​ ​Reign​ ​of​ ​Pope​ ​Gregory​ ​1 700​ ​-​ ​Beowulf 800​ ​-​ ​Charlemagne​ ​crowned​ ​holy​ ​roman​ ​emperor 800​ ​-​ ​Book​ ​of​ ​Kells 900​ ​-​ ​Earliest​ ​notated​ ​Gregorian​ ​chants 1066​ ​-​ ​Norman​ ​Conquest 1096-1099​ ​-​ ​First​ ​Crusade 1100-1300​ ​-​ ​Troubadours​ ​and​ ​trouvères 1150​ ​-​ ​Hildegard​ ​von​ ​Bingen,​ ​O​ ​Successors First​ ​recorded​ ​female​ ​composer,​ ​Psychic 1163​ ​-​ ​Notre​ ​Dame​ ​Cathedral 1170​ ​-​ ​School​ ​of​ ​Notre​ ​Dame First​ ​recorded​ ​polyphonic​ ​music 1215​ ​-​ ​Magna​ ​Carta​ ​signed 1273​ ​-​ ​Summa​ ​Theologica 1360​ ​-​ ​Guillaume​ ​de​ ​Machaut’s​ ​Notre​ ​Dame​ ​Mass 1337-1453​ ​-​ ​Hundred​ ​Years​ ​War Neumes​ ​-​ ​early​ ​notation Syllabic Neumatic Melismatic Salve​ ​Regina​ ​-​ ​Pope​ ​Gregory Sleepy,​ ​serious,​ ​dark,​ ​gloomy Soft​ ​dynamics,​ ​slow​ ​tempo,​ ​free​ ​form​ ​rhythm,​ ​low​ ​pitches O​ ​Successors​ ​-​ ​Hildegard​ ​von​ ​Bingen Sleepy,​ ​serious,​ ​dark​ ​but​ ​less​ ​gloomy Soft​ ​dynamics,​ ​slightly​ ​faster​ ​tempo,​ ​free​ ​form​ ​rhythm,​ ​higher​ ​pitches Church​ ​Modes​ ​blah​ ​blah Phrygian​ ​‘evokes​ ​eroticism’ 1170-1200​ ​AD​ ​-​ ​Polyphony School​ ​of​ ​Notre​ ​Dame Leonin​ ​&​ ​Perotin​ ​-​ ​developed​ ​rhythm​ ​and​ ​polyphony Sederunt​ ​principes​ ​-​ ​Perotin​ ​-​ ​Drone/pedal,​ ​tempo​ ​faster Organum​ ​-​ ​original​ ​chant​ ​plus​ ​another​ ​chant​ ​below​ ​and​ ​above Viderunt​ ​omnes​ ​-​ ​Leonin Band​ ​Layout Renaissance Humanism Centers​ ​of​ ​activity​ ​-​ ​Italy,​ ​Spain,​ ​England,​ ​Germany,​ ​France Historical​ ​events:​ ​Columbus​ ​goes​ ​to​ ​the​ ​American​ ​continent​ ​(1492) Halo​ ​disappears​ ​from​ ​painting​ ​(Da​ ​Vinci,​ ​Michelangelo) Shakespeare Golden​ ​age​ ​of​ ​a​ ​capella Richer​ ​sounds Word​ ​&​ ​text​ ​painting Musical​ ​notation​ ​becomes​ ​quantified Development​ ​of​ ​motet​ ​and​ ​mass Liturgy​ ​-​ ​order​ ​of​ ​services​ ​within​ ​a​ ​church Early​ ​trombone​ ​created​ ​-​ ​Sacbut Renaissance​ ​Mass Kyrie​ ​(Kyrie​ ​Eleison/Christe​ ​Eleison) Gloria​ ​(Gloria​ ​in​ ​Excelsis​ ​Deo) Credo​ ​(Creed) Sanctus​ ​(Holy​ ​Holy​ ​Holy​ ​Lord​ ​God​ ​of​ ​Hosts) Agnus​ ​Dei​ ​(Lamb​ ​of​ ​God) Josquin​ ​des​ ​Prez​ ​-​ ​Ave​ ​Maria,​ ​virgo​ ​serena 1475,​ ​vocal,​ ​motet,​ ​imitative Giovanni​ ​Palestrina​ ​-​ ​Pope​ ​Marcellus​ ​Mass 1562-1563,​ ​vocal​ ​(Kyrie) John​ ​Dowland​ ​-​ ​Flow​ ​My​ ​Tears 1600,​ ​lute​ ​&​ ​voice Michael​ ​Praetorius​ ​-​ ​Terpsichore 1612,​ ​instrumental,​ ​300​ ​dances Recorder​ ​is​ ​precursor​ ​to​ ​flute Baroque:​ ​1600-1750 Very​ ​polyphonic Baroque​ ​-​ ​flowering,​ ​ornamental,​ ​flamboyant,​ ​filling​ ​space Center​ ​of​ ​cultural​ ​activity​ ​-​ ​Germany Religion:​ ​Catholicism​ ​vs​ ​Protestantism​ ​(1517​ ​-​ ​start​ ​of​ ​Reformation) Age​ ​of​ ​Absolutism 1600​ ​-​ ​Shakespeare’s​ ​Hamlet Science​ ​&​ ​Innovations:​ ​1610​ ​-​ ​Galileo​ ​confirms​ ​that​ ​the​ ​Earth​ ​revolves​ ​around​ ​Sun 1611​ ​-​ ​King​ ​James​ ​Bible 1687​ ​-​ ​Newton’s​ ​Principia​ ​Mathematica Three​ ​Laws​ ​of​ ​Motion 1692​ ​-​ ​Salem​ ​Witch​ ​Trials String​ ​instruments​ ​start​ ​to​ ​become​ ​perfected Baroque​ ​orchestra​ ​is​ ​formed​ ​-​ ​35​ ​instruments Organ​ ​and​ ​harpsichord​ ​invented Fugue​ ​&​ ​Oratorio​ ​forms​ ​invented Tuning​ ​systems:​ ​equal​ ​temperament​ ​&​ ​just​ ​intonation JS​ ​Bach​ ​&​ ​George​ ​Frideric​ ​Handel Evolution​ ​of​ ​Opera Overture,​ ​Libretto,​ ​Recitative JS​ ​Bach Birthplace​ ​-​ ​Eisenach Fathered​ ​23​ ​children Organist Lutheran Composed​ ​instrumental​ ​&​ ​choral Cataloguing​ ​system​ ​-​ ​BWV Fugue​ ​form:​ ​ABA​ ​or​ ​ABA’ Instrumental​ ​music:​ ​largely​ ​preludes​ ​and​ ​fugues George​ ​Frideric​ ​Handel​ ​-​ ​1685-1759 Born​ ​in​ ​Halle,​ ​Germany Played​ ​Violin,​ ​Harpsichord,​ ​Organ Wrote​ ​39​ ​Italian​ ​operas,​ ​primarily​ ​oratorios Oratorio​ ​-​ ​large​ ​scale​ ​composition​ ​for​ ​chorus,​ ​vocal​ ​soloists,​ ​orchestra,​ ​narrative​ ​biblical text,​ ​ex.​ ​The​ ​Messiah​ ​(1741) Classical:​ ​1750​ ​-​ ​1827 Period​ ​of​ ​order,​ ​familiarity,​ ​entertainment 1759​ ​-​ ​Voltaire’s​ ​Candide 1787​ ​-​ ​Jacque​ ​David’s​ ​Death​ ​of​ ​Socrates 1808​ ​-​ ​Johann​ ​Goethe’s​ ​Faust 1813​ ​-​ ​Jane​ ​Austen’s​ ​Pride​ ​&​ ​Prejudice 1819​ ​-​ ​Sir​ ​Walter​ ​Scott’s​ ​Ivanhoe Wolfgang​ ​Mozart,​ ​Franz​ ​Joseph​ ​Haydn,​ ​Ludwig​ ​van​ ​Beethoven Classical​ ​orchestra/instrumentation​ ​-​ ​60​ ​instruments Piano,​ ​wind​ ​instruments Snare​ ​drum,​ ​bass​ ​drum,​ ​crash​ ​cymbals Chamber​ ​music:​ ​string​ ​quartet,​ ​woodwind​ ​quintet​ ​and​ ​octet Patronage​ ​system Contrast​ ​in​ mood Lots​ ​of​ ​rhythmic​ ​activity Homophonic​ ​texture Melodies​ ​-​ ​simple​ ​and​ ​easy​ ​to​ ​remember Dynamics/Volume​ ​-​ ​crescendo/diminuendo,​ ​invention​ ​of​ ​piano​ ​which​ ​was​ ​more​ ​dynamic Basso​ ​Continuo​ ​ends Symphony​ ​&​ ​String​ ​Quartet​ ​Form Four​ ​Movements​ ​-​ ​1.​ ​Fast,​ ​2.​ ​Slow,​ ​3.​ ​Dance​ ​(in​ ​three),​ ​4.​ ​Fast Sonata​ ​form:​ ​Same​ ​as​ ​the​ ​fugue​ ​form,​ ​but​ ​with​ ​a​ ​coda​ ​at​ ​the​ ​end,​ ​also​ ​refers​ ​to​ ​first movement​ ​of​ ​a​ ​symphony Concerto​ ​Form Three​ ​Movements​ ​-​ ​1.​ ​Fast,​ ​2.​ ​Slow,​ ​3.​ ​Fast Features​ ​a​ ​solo​ ​instrument Cadenza​ ​in​ ​first​ ​or​ ​last​ ​movement First​ ​movement​ ​in​ ​sonata​ ​form,​ ​orchestra​ ​plays​ ​exposition​ ​first,​ ​then​ ​followed​ ​by​ ​solo instrument​ ​w/​ ​orchestra Mozart:​ ​1756-1791 Born​ ​in​ ​Salzburg,​ ​Austria,​ ​lived​ ​mostly​ ​in​ ​Vienna Regarded​ ​as​ ​greatest​ ​composer Primary​ ​instruments:​ ​Violin​ ​&​ ​Piano,​ ​but​ ​could​ ​play​ ​almost​ ​all​ ​instruments Wrote​ ​symphonies,​ ​chamber​ ​music,​ ​concerti,​ ​operas Used​ ​cataloguing​ ​system​ ​of​ ​Kirschel Eine​ ​Kleine​ ​Nachtmusik Marriage​ ​of​ ​Figaro Don​ ​Giovanni Magic​ ​Flute Mass​ ​in​ ​C​ ​Major Requiem Symphony​ ​No.​ ​40​ ​in​ ​G​ ​Minor Franz​ ​Haydn:​ ​1732-1809 Born​ ​in​ ​Rohrau,​ ​Austria​ ​(tiny​ ​village​ ​near​ ​Hungarian​ ​border) 1761-1790:​ ​entered​ ​the​ ​service​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Esterhazys​ ​(richest,​ ​most​ ​powerful​ ​of​ ​Hungarian families),​ ​wrote​ ​much​ ​of​ ​his​ ​music​ ​for​ ​this​ ​family​ ​on​ ​commission Wrote​ ​104​ ​symphonies,​ ​68​ ​string​ ​quartets,​ ​two​ ​oratorios​ ​(​The​ ​Creation​ ​(1798)​ ​&​ ​The Seasons​ ​(1801)) Symphony​ ​No.​ ​104​ ​“London”​ ​(1795) Beethoven:​ ​1770-1827 Bonn,​ ​Germany Bridge​ ​b/t​ ​classical​ ​&​ ​romantic Wrote​ ​9​ ​symphonies:​ ​5,​ ​6,​ ​7​ ​&​ ​9​ ​are​ ​considered​ ​greatest Went​ ​deaf​ ​during​ ​Symphony​ ​No.​ ​9 Symphony​ ​No.​ ​5​ ​in​ ​C​ ​minor​ ​(First​ ​symphony​ ​to​ ​use​ ​trombones) Romantic Franz​ ​Liszt Hungarian Piano​ ​player Frederic​ ​Chopin Polish Piano​ ​player Franz​ ​Schubert Austrian Art​ ​songs​ ​(voice​ ​and​ ​piano) Erlkonig Mysticism​ ​-​ ​oneness​ ​with​ ​God/absolute/your​ ​definition​ ​of​ ​God​ ​through​ ​contemplation and​ ​altered​ ​states​ ​of​ ​mind Fantasy​ ​-​ ​fictional,​ ​grandiose​ ​work Symphonie​ ​Fantastique​ ​-​ ​Berlioz,​ ​ex.​ ​of​ ​tone​ ​poem Romantic​ ​music​ ​often​ ​based​ ​on​ ​literature Opera​ ​-​ ​sung​ ​drama Libretto Overture Aria Wagner Verdi Puccini Rossini Richard​ ​Wagner German Grumpy,​ ​Pompous Associated​ ​with​ ​Nazism Conductor,​ ​but​ ​bad​ ​at​ ​it Ring​ ​Cycle:​ ​4​ ​epic​ ​operas 2​ ​concert​ ​band​ ​works Huidinggamarch Hector​ ​Berlioz​ ​(1803-1869) French Concert​ ​Band​ ​enthusiast Won​ ​Prix​ ​de​ ​Rome​ ​-​ ​highest​ ​prize​ ​of​ ​Paris​ ​Conservatory,​ ​subsidized​ ​two​ ​years​ ​of study​ ​in​ ​Rome Damnation​ ​of​ ​Faust, ​Symphonie​ ​Fantastique Antonin​ ​Dvorak New​ ​World​ ​Symphony Nationalist Bedrich​ ​Smetana Czech The​ ​Moldau Nationalist Johannes​ ​Brahms Hamburg,​ ​Germany Influenced​ ​by​ ​Franz​ ​Liszt​ ​and​ ​Robert​ ​Schumann 200​ ​songs,​ ​4​ ​symphonies,​ ​choral​ ​music German​ ​Requiem Died​ ​of​ ​cancer Giuseppi​ ​Verdi Busseto,​ ​Italy Piano​ ​and​ ​organ Mostly​ ​operas Giacomo​ ​Puccini Tuscany,​ ​Italy Milan​ ​Conservatory Mostly​ ​operas Manon​ ​Lescaut,​ ​Le​ ​Boheme,​ ​Tosca,​ ​Madame​ ​Butterfly,​ ​Turandot​ ​(completed​ ​by Franco​ ​Alfano) Later​ ​operas​ ​reflected​ ​realism Died​ ​in​ ​Belgium,​ ​buried​ ​in​ ​Milan Richard​ ​Strauss German Symphonic​ ​poems,​ ​chamber​ ​music​ ​and​ ​choral​ ​music Alpine​ ​Symphony Peter​ ​Tchaikovsky Russian Symphonies,​ ​operas,​ ​ballets Swan​ ​Lake,​ ​Sleeping​ ​Beauty,​ ​The​ ​Nutcracker,​ ​Overture​ ​to​ ​1812 Scott​ ​Joplin Ragtime Syncopation The​ ​Entertainer Twentieth​ ​Century Debussy George​ ​Gershwin Duke​ ​Ellington,​ ​John​ ​Coltrane,​ ​Louis​ ​Armstrong,​ ​Ella​ ​Fitzgerald,​ ​Billie​ ​Holiday Igor​ ​Stravinsky Rite​ ​of​ ​Spring​ ​(1913) Caused​ ​a​ ​motherfucking​ ​riot Influenced​ ​by​ ​jazz Russian NeoClassicalism​ ​-​ ​Igor​ ​Stravinsky,​ ​Paul​ ​Hindemith,​ ​Francis​ ​Poulenc Serialism/Atonality/12​ ​Tone​ ​-​ ​Arnold​ ​Schoenberg,​ ​Alban​ ​Berg,​ ​Anton​ ​Webern Second​ ​Viennese​ ​School Minimalism​ ​-​ ​Steve​ ​Reich,​ ​Terry​ ​Riley,​ ​John​ ​Adams,​ ​John​ ​Cage,​ ​Philip​ ​Glass Charles​ ​Ives Aaron​ ​Copland Leonard​ ​Bernstein Conductor​ ​for​ ​New​ ​York​ ​Philharmonic​ ​Orchestra West​ ​Side​ ​Story ...
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