Chapter 6 Skeletal_System and Chapter 8 Articulations

Chapter 6 Skeletal_System and Chapter 8 Articulations - THE...

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THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Chapter 6: Osseous Tissue and Skeletal Structure I. Functions of Bone A. Support - hold you upright, form a place for muscles to attach- can move bones only at joints B. Protection - brain and spinal cord protected by bone – internal organs protected by ribs, pelvis protects digestive and reproductive organs C. Leverage - bones function as levers that change the magnitude and direction of forces generated by skeletal muscles D. Mineral storage - calcium (Ca2+) and phosphate (PO4 3-), energy reserves as lipids in the yellow marrow E. Hematopoiesis - the production of blood cells that takes place within bones in the red marrow II. Classification of Bones A. Shapes: long ( humerus ) , short ( carpals ) , flat ( parietal ), irregular ( vertebrae ), seasmoid form within tendons ( patella ), sutural bones ( flat bones - on skull) B. Long Bone Structure - a. Diaphysis - mostly compact bone, the “shaft” b. Marrow Cavity – yellow (fat) and red (pre-blood cell) marrow c. Epiphysis - spongy bone, ends of bone d. Two forms of Osseous tissue: d.i. Compact bone (cortex) relatively dense, forms cortex of outer shell of bone d.ii. Spongy bone - interior spaces/ not completely solid- gives strength to the bone in the right places, leaves gaps where needed, allows bones to be lighter C. Flat Bone Structure: spongy sandwich a. Compact bone (cortex) on outer and inner surfaces b. Spongy bone (Diploë) in between III. Bone Histology A. Matrix = ground substance + fibers a. 2/3 comprised of hydroxyapatite- inorganic compounds a.i. hydroxyapatite- an arrangement of calcium phosphate + calcium hydroxide; these crystals incorporate calcium salts such as calcium carbonate, in addition to ions such as sodium, magnesium, and fluoride b. 1/3 comprised of collagen fibers- organic compounds b.i. An interesting network of brittle hydroxyapatite with strong, flexible collagen b.ii. This is a protein-crystal interaction which gives bone its strong, somewhat flexible nature
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B. Bone Cells a. Osteocytes – reside within lacuna and connect to one another via canaliculi a.i. Mature bone cells (cannot divide)
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Chapter 6 Skeletal_System and Chapter 8 Articulations - THE...

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