Chapter 11 Neural tissue and Neurophysiology

Chapter 11 Neural tissue and Neurophysiology - Neural...

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Neural tissue and Neurophysiology Chapter 11: Organization and composition of the nervous system I. An Overview of the Nervous System A. Composition – Neurons —cells; and neuroglia (glia)—supportive framework for cells B. Organization 1. Central Nervous System : spinal cord and brain a. Responsible for sensory data and motor commands 2. Peripheral Nervous System a. Afferent (Sensory) Division , brings info to CNS b. Efferent (Motor) Division , carries out commands from info II. Neurons A. The Structure of Neurons 1. Cell body/soma a. Cytoskeletal organization b. Nissl bodies, RER and free ribosomes, account for “gray” matter c. Amitotic, cannot divide 2. Dendrites – receptive region, extend out of soma 3. Axon – region that sends information, may contain collaterals (side branches near synaptic terminals) a. Glial cells wrap around axon 4. Synapse a. Most connections are neural, muscular, or glandular b. Presynaptic (sending) cell vs. postsynaptic (receiving) cell 5. (electrical impulse) Presynaptic dendrites through soma down axon to synapse STOP at fluid filled gap neurotransmitter (chemical impulse) neighbor dendrites (neuron)/neuromuscular (Ach)/neuroglandular Postsynaptic B. The Classification of Neurons: structure 1. Multipolar neurons i. Motor neurons (control skeletal muscles) and interneuron CNS ii. Trigger zone covers all of axon iii. 2 or more dendrites and an axon 2. Pseudounipolar neurons i. Sensory: pain (PNS) ii. Soma (cell body) attached to middle on axon so that dendrites are basically fused with axon iii. Trigger zone covers all of axon 3. Bipolar Neurons i. Special sensory: vision, hearing, smelling—in only these 3 places ii. Soma (cell body) imbedded in middle beginning at trigger zone: impulse will not decay also called action potential
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C. The Classification of Neurons: function 1. Sensory (afferent) Neurons a. Bipolar – eyes, nose, ears (special sense organs) b. Pseudounipolar nearly all others c. Ganglia : cluster of cell bodies in PNS -cell bodies tend to reside in the same area across multiple axons d . Receptor type i. Exteroceptors – somatic sensory -receive information about touch, pressure, pain, temp ii. Proprioceptors
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Chapter 11 Neural tissue and Neurophysiology - Neural...

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