Psyc Study Guide Test 2

Psyc Study Guide Test 2 - Psyc. Study Guide: Test 2 Chapt....

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Psyc. Study Guide: Test 2 Chapt. 2: Glial cells (glia): Structural support for neurons -Insulate Neurons -Supply nutrients to neurons -Remove waste materials from neurons -Involve in neurocomunication -10 times as many of these Neurons: A nerve cell; the basic building black of NS, receive/integrate/transmit info -3 different types: 1. Sensory Neurons: receive signals from ouside the NS 2. Motor Neurons: carry info from the NS to the muscles/glands 3. Inter Neurons: communicates only with other neurons -Parts of the Neuron: QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. 1. Cell body (Soma): the cells info-support center 2. Dendrites: receive messages from other cells 3. Axon: Transmits messages away from the cell body to other neurons or to muscles or glands - Myelin Sheath: fatty tissue encasing the fibers of many neurons -Speeds up transmission of the neural message -Loss of myelin can result in multiple sclerosis (MS)
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Ion: The chemistry-to-electricity process involves the exchange of electrically charged atoms At rest, which side of the axon (inside or outside) is more positive? The fluid interior of a resting axon has an excess of negatively charged ions, while the fluid outside of the axon membrane has more positively charged ions. Resting potential Action Potential: a neural impulses, a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon - Generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in/ out of channels in the axon’s membrane -Speed from 2 mph to 200 mph Threshold: the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse How Neurons Communicate QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. -Synapse: the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite/cell body of the recovering neuron - Synoptic gap/cleft: the gap at the junction -Neurotransmitters: chemical/messengers that traverse the synoptic gap between neurons -Synoptic Vesicles: small sacs that store neurotransmitters -Action potential transports vesicles toward the synapse -Vesicles fuse with the bottom’s membranes
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-Releases neurotransmitter into the gap -NT binds to a receptor - Receptor: protein molecules on the dendrite/cell body that interact only with specific NT (key into lock) -Opens up channels that allows ions to rush - Excitatory: increases the likelihood of an action potential -Inhibitory: decreases the likelihood of and action potential -NT (in synoptic cleft) is gone after a fraction of a second - Reuptake: NT is transported back to the sending neuron for recycling - Agonist: a chemical that facilitates the action of a NT - Antagonist: a chemical that blocks/inhibits the affect of a NT How are acetylcholine and voluntary muscles related? Acetylcholine enables muscle action, learning and memory. Curare:
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Psyc Study Guide Test 2 - Psyc. Study Guide: Test 2 Chapt....

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